People who generally reside in rural or under developed areas are more prone to the ingestion of infective parasites as compared to those who live in urban/suburban or well developed areas where sanitation is presumably better; hence possess a lower chance of infection . The water supply in developed areas is obviously cleaner, which reduces the chance of contamination. However in rural areas, the nature of everyday activities bring people, especially children, into close contact with natural sources of soil and water, therefore increasing their risk of ingestion as well as the penetration of infective stage parasites [4, 16].
10.9% of children's stool samples examined in this study were found to have intestinal parasites. This study result is in agreement with studies carried out earlier in diarrheal children in Kumasi, Ghana (11.0%)  and pre-school children in Gaza, Palestine (10.3%). Both studies showed no clear trend in prevalence with age . Studies conducted by Annan et al among pre-school children in Ghana however revealed up to 18.2% Giardia infection  whilst Verweij et al reported 21.5% among children in Northern Ghana . Even higher prevalence have been reported in other areas such as among children in the urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan (23.9%), Iranian day-care children (26.2%) , children in the aborigine community in Pahang, Malaysia (44.1%) , and children in Amman, Jordan (78%) .
The lower prevalence of Giardia lamblia in our study could be attributed mainly to the technique employed (Direct wet mount) in the identification of the parasites as compared to the techniques employed in the other studies. The direct wet mount technique is fast, cheap and easy for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites when present in sufficient concentrations . It detects motility of organisms  and valuable for detection of parasites that may be lost in the concentration methods  as well as the examination of certain diagnostically important objects such as cellular exudates [26, 27]. However, this method lacks sensitivity [23, 25, 28–30] and its parasite detection ability is even lower at low parasite concentrations for even the best of microscopists [31, 32]. Slide preparations from wet mounts dry up easily thus motile organisms may not be detected if the preparations are not examined quickly after preparation .
In contrast to other studies conducted among infants in Kumasi, Ghana , among children in northern Ghana , children in Lagos, Nigeria , Côte d'Ivoire , Qatar  and in Delhi, India , this study showed a high prevalence of Giardia lamblia in children. This suggests that Giardia lamblia infection may either be present sub-clinically or the parasite have partial pathogenicity or the majority of the children within the study area are asymptomatic carriers of a non-pathogenic strain. Different genotypes of Giardia lamblia (Assemblage A and Assemblage B) has been reported in Bangladesh with the Assemblage A genotype more associated with diarrhoea than the Assemblage B genotype .
Giardia lamblia has been documented to be transmitted either from person to person, animal to person or from the environment to person. These transmission modes are well favored by high temperatures and moist climatic conditions, poor personal hygiene and unsanitary habits of individuals [2, 5, 8, 37]. Again, domestic animals such as dogs which serve as reservoir hosts for Giardia lamblia provide the utmost risk of the infection . The study area as earlier described possesses these conditions that are favorable for the transmission of Giardia lamblia and other parasitic agents. With subsistence farming and animal husbandry being the major occupation of the people, most households have domestic animals such as dogs, sheep, goats, etc which are often allowed to roam outdoors either unsupervised or in the company of children. Due to lack of potable water on their farms, the farmers and their children drink from streams and rivers which are sometimes used by these animals also. These factors might have contributed to the high prevalence rate of Giardia lamblia infection in children within the study area.
Giardia lamblia incidence increased significantly with age (Trend 2= 18.6, p < 0.001) with the highest age group being 15-17 years (Figure 3). Majority of the patients in this study were children of school age and thus they have very active playing habits in and out of school. These children normally play in the soil which harbors these parasites and are less mindful of some very important personal hygiene practices such as washing of hands with soap and water before eating, after playing in the soil and after visiting the toilets. Again, they also buy a lot of food from streets vendors some of whom do not practice proper personal hygiene and may also be carriers of some of these infective parasites [5, 6]. It has also been shown that children acquire immunity after the initial infections in early life which results in some protection in later life . This study shows that children of school going age are also highly affected by giardiasis contrary to previous suggestions that giardiasis was highest only among children of pre-school age who are usually in child care settings .