The observed variation in trap captures recorded in the different colored configurations suggests that mosquito species vary in attractiveness to light-baited traps [21, 22]. As such it is logical to expect that individual species wavelength preference will vary although such behavioral wavelength preferences may or may not correspond to spectral sensitivities .
Following our study design, the incandescent light recorded an overall higher capture of mosquitoes compared to any other LED colored traps (red, blue, green, violet, BGR). This was followed by BGR, blue, green, violet and red in the order of performance for most of the mosquito species examined. The results of field trials by Burkett et al.  with LED-modified CDC traps observed color preferences for some species of Anopheles Culex Culiseta Ochlerotatus, and Psorophora. With a significant effect of light color on capture numbers, blue or green light was particularly preferred in most instances, with incandescent light most often performing nearly as well as blue and green light and generally better than red, orange, or yellow light. A similar order of effectiveness of green > incandescent > blue > red light, in trapping mosquitoes from three genera (Anopheles Culex and Aedes) was reported by Hoel et al. . This contrasts with our findings where incandescent light proved to be superior in a majority of instances compared to the LED colors used in our experiment although in terms of performance were followed by BGR or blue and green in this order. This difference might be related to the lighting design used in our experiment. The LEDs used in our design produce only transmitted light (direct line of sight) at very specific frequencies as opposed to reflected light (off of aluminum rain shields) used in the abovementioned previous studies. Transmitted light might not be as scattered as reflected light thereby reducing visual contrast and target size .
A related work by Burkett comparing blue and green light LED-modified CDC traps to incandescent light traps in north Florida demonstrated that, with the exception of Culex (Melanoconion) spp., mosquitoes showed no preferences between incandescent, blue, or green light as either transmitted light or reflected light (Doug Burkett, personal communication)(cf: . In this regard, the lack of consistency in trap performance to colored light remains a challenge. Microhabitat/ecological and seasonal differences might interplay as evident in our data where a clear bias for BGR and blue lights was observed for Ae. mcintoshi and Ae. ochraceus respectively during one trapping season but dwindling effect recorded in another season. Although the reason for this is unclear; perhaps, environmental changes such as dust storms or vegetation changes could lead to reduced brightness of the LEDs and therefore attraction to mosquitoes. As such, the intensity of the light produced by the LEDs needs to be considered. The traps were all baited with dry ice to enhance trap captures. Using CO2 is important because it is a long range attractant and the light color is a short range attractant. Therefore, to bring in statistically significant numbers of mosquitoes to compare trap captures, a long range attractant is needed to bring the mosquitoes into closer proximity at which time their photo attraction will supersede the chemo attraction. A standardized amount of dry ice (1 Kg) was used for this purpose and it is unlikely that the addition of CO2 may have affected the trapping experiments.
In a previous study using several colored light bulbs of different intensities to capture mosquitoes (Anopheles and Aedes species), Barr et al.  determined that color had little effect on trap capture and that light intensity played a significant role with higher intensity lights (100 W lamps) being more attractive than lower intensity light (60 W and 25 W lamps). Similarly, Breyev  reported significant attraction of Ae. vexans with one 220 W mercury lamp than with two 109 W incandescent lamps. However, evaluation of six different colors (white, yellow, green, orange, blue, and red) of varying intensities on mosquito captures by Ali et al.  found that five predominate species (Psorophora columbiae Ps. ciliata Culex salinarius Cx. nigripalpus, and Cx. erraticus) were much more strongly affected by color than by light intensity. A similar pattern was established by Gjullin et al.  who found no evidence of importance of light intensity over color for mosquito attraction. The above results therefore suggest confounding findings regarding the relative importance of light color and intensity in mosquito attraction.
Stacking 2 LED lighting chips (16 LED bulbs) can provide an equal measure of light intensity of each colored LED trap platform compared to the incandescent light used in our experiment (Cohnstaedt, personal communication) although this was not possible with the trap designs we used. However with sufficient evidence that light color and intensity affect trap attractiveness to mosquitoes, and that mosquito species appear able to discern color and in cases prefer some colors to others [27–29] it may be worthwhile to consider in future studies, colored light of varying intensities.
Mosquitoes response to artificial light in many field and laboratory studies have reported a dominant spectral sensitivity to light in the ultraviolet-blue and green light and incandescent light spectrum [4, 30, 31]. Although recorded lower captures compared to incandescent, BGR and Blue colors performed better than violet and red for most species including Mn. uniformis Mn. africana and Cx. pipiens. This concurs with findings that blue and green light is often more attractive than light in the yellow-orange and red regions of the visible spectrum. Many insects are insensitive to red spectrum frequencies as noted by Breyev . This may account for lower captures recorded in the red colored light compared to the others for most of the mosquito species. This observation however, may not pertain to sandfly species. In fact Hoel et al.  in a field study in southern Egypt found that over half (55.13%) of all sand flies were collected from red light traps with significantly more recorded than in blue, green, or incandescent light traps.
Our data suggest clearly that irrespective of trapping period, most of the mosquito species were far more attracted to multi-spectrum light (incandescent light) as compared to monochromatic light. It is possible that the high intensity incandescent light was favored over the lower intensity monochromatic lights due to superior luminosity/intensity even though further studies are required to ascertain this.