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Table 2 Repellent effects of ContraZeck® and Zanzarin® against I. ricinus nymphs over time (MO-bioassay)

From: Prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: Comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae)

Test formulation Crawling to the tip of the glass rod Attaching the filter paper on the drum Dropping off the attachment site Repellency [%]
  n % n % n % Significance  
Blank test 30 100 28 93.3 0 0   
DDA-based form. Batch 040088 – 1 h 30 100 23 75.7 23 100 p < 0.001* p > 0.05** 100
Batch 040088 – 4 h 30 100 25 83.3 25 100 p < 0.001* p < 0.05** 100
Batch 040088 – 8 h 30 100 23 75.7 23 100 p < 0.001* p > 0.05** 100
Reference# – 1 h 28 93.3 23 82.1 22 95.7 p < 0.001* 96.5
Reference# – 4 h 30 100 29 96.7 24 82.8 p < 0.001* 82.1
Reference# – 8 h 30 100 25 83.3 21 84.0 p < 0.001* 85.7
  1. The quantity of the DDA-based formulation (ContraZeck®) applied per test was about 1 mg/cm2, corresponding to approximately 0.1 mg DDA/cm2. # The reference product Zanzarin® (Bio-Hautschutz Lotion) was applied per test in a concentration of 1.05 mg/cm2.
  2. Significance: *in relation to blank test, **in relation to Zanzarin®. Differences in repellency between both products are significant only 4 hours after application.