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Table 1 Proven or suspected Culicidae vectors of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in Italy (North -N; South -S; Sicily -Si; Sardinia -Sa) [4, 33, 50].

From: Changing distribution patterns of canine vector borne diseases in Italy: leishmaniosis vs. dirofilariosis

  Distribution D. immitis D. repens
Anophelinae    
Anopheles claviger* N, S, Si, Sa - -
A. maculipennis N, S, Si mol./f.c.s. mol./f.c.s.
Culicinae    
Aedes albopictus N, S, Sa mol./f.c.s. mol./f.c.s.
Ae. cantans* N - -
Ae. caspius*    
Ae. cinereus N, S, Si, Sa - -
  N mol./abd. -
Ae. geniculatus N, S, Si, Sa mol./abd. -
Ae. detritus N, S, Si, Sa mol./abd. -
Ae. punctor N, S mol./abd. -
Ae. vexans* N, S, Si, Sa - -
Coquillettidia richiardii* N, S, Si, Sa mol./f.c.s. -
Culiseta annulata* N, S, Si, Sa - -
Culex modestus N, S, Si, Sa mol./abd. -
C. pipiens N, S, Si, Sa mol./f.c.s. mol./f.c.s.
C. territans* N, S - -
C. torrentium N mol./abd. -
  1. * Culicidae spp. reported in Italy and suspected vectors of Dirofilaria spp. [33]. Evidence about the competence of Culicidae as vectors of Dirofilaria immitis and/or Dirofilaria repens in Italy relies on laboratory or field capture studies by dissection or PCR testing of field collected samples (mol./f.c.s.). PCR positive results of abdomens (mol./abd.), which however do not prove vector competence are also reported [4, 33, 50].