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Table 1 Programmed cell death pathways and their possible roles in parasite biology and parasite-host interaction

From: Impact of protozoan cell death on parasite-host interactions and pathogenesis

Function Parasite/Stage Host Form of death/Sign. pathway Citations
Density control T. brucei/short stumpy mammal apoptosis [20, 21]
  T. brucei/procyclic tsetse fly apoptosis [22, 23]
  P. berghei, P. falciparum/ookinetes vector apoptosis [34, 35]
  T. cruzi/epimastigotes vector apoptosis [44, 47]
  T. cruzi/amastigotes mammal apoptosis [45, 46]
Immune silencing L. major/promastigotes mammal apoptosis [60, 61]
  L. amazonensis/amastigotes mammal apoptosis [65]
  T. cruzi/trypomastigotes vector, mammal apoptosis [66]
  T. brucei/short stumpy mammal apoptosis [70]
  Toxoplasma/tachyzoites mammal apoptosis [71]
Differentiation L. major, L. mexicana sand fly, mammal autophagy [75, 76]
  T. brucei mammal, sand fly autophagy [81]
  T. cruzi/epimastigotes vector autophagy [84]
Stress response     
starvation T. brucei tsetse fly autophagy [87]
ROS, DHA, neuropeptides T. brucei/blood stream form mammal autophagy/autophagic cell death [15, 16, 87, 90]
chemotherapeutic agents T. cruzi/epimastigotes, trypomastigotes vector, mammal autophagy/cell death [6, 17, 18, 9193]
starvation T. cruci vector autophagy [84]
heat shock L. infantum, L. donovani, L. amazonensis mammal apoptosis [97101]