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Table 6 Relationship between A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura infection intensity, multiple helminth infection and school performance, including standard deviation (SD) measured by end-of-school-term marks (scale from 100 (best) to 0 (worst)) among 154 children from Bulangshan, Yunnan province, P.R. China.

From: Self-rated quality of life and school performance in relation to helminth infections: case study from Yunnan, People's Republic of China

Parameter Obs. End-of-school-term marks
   Chinese Mathematics English Sports (n = 104)c
   Mean (SD) P -valuea Mean (SD) P -value Mean (SD) P -value Mean (SD) P -value
A. lumbricoides          
   Nob 66 46 (19) 0.107 26 (17) 0.342 42 (18) 0.600 78 (12) (n = 47) 0.130
   Light 33 38 (19)   21 (15)   38 (23)   75 (12) (n = 20)  
   Moderate 51 42 (19)   25 (18)   44 (19)   73 (14) (n = 34)  
   Heavy 4 32 (13)   20 (13)   37 (23)   55 (23) (n = 3)  
Hookworm          
   No 49 46 (20) 0.110 29 (18) 0.090 42 (21) 0.586 75 (11) (n = 34) 0.321
   Light 95 42 (19)   23 (16)   42 (18)   75 (15) (n = 63)  
   Moderate 5 44 (15)   20 (9)   31 (22)   81 (9) (n = 4)  
   Heavy 5 25 (7)   15 (8)   48 (28)   65 (5) (n = 3)  
T. trichiura          
   No 47 47 (20) 0.360 29 (19) 0.126 42 (15) 0.326 77 (15) (n = 34) 0.438
   Light 78 41 (18)   23 (15)   39 (21)   75 (13) (n = 48)  
   Moderate 27 40 (17)   21 (13)   44 (22)   74 (12) (n = 21)  
   Heavy 2 48 (53)   39 (47)   60 (0)   90 (n.a.) (n = 1)  
Multiple helminth infection          
   No 13 54 (21) 0.089 41 (23) 0.007 45 (19) 0.697 80 (11) (n = 10) 0.773
   Single 22 47 (18)   24 (14)   41 (17)   76 (12) (n = 17)  
   Dual 46 43 (20)   21 (13)   39 (17)   75 (15) (n = 31)  
   Triple 73 40 (18)   24 (17)   43 (22)   74 (13) (n = 46)  
  1. a P-values according to the Kruskal-Wallis test with 3 d.f. b Stratification according to WHO [21]. c One class had no sports education