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Table 1 Risk factors for E. histolytica infection in Hanam province, Vietnam (univariable conditional logistic regression analysis).

From: Risk factors for Entamoeba histolytica infection in an agricultural community in Hanam province, Vietnam

Variables Case Control    
  N (%) N (%) Matched OR 95% CI P-value
1. Socio-economic status      
Educational level      
   High school 6 (13.0) 17 (12.0) Reference   
   Secondary school 24 (52.2) 79 (57.3) 0.8 0.7-2.7 0.76
   Primary school 16 (34.8) 42 (29.8) 1.1 0.3-3.8 0.87
Occupation      
   Non agricultural work 16 (34.8) 45 (32.6) Reference   
   Agricultural work 30 (65.2) 93 (67.4) 0.8 0.3-2.2 0.70
Household's economic status overall      
   Good 8 (17.4) 53 (38.4) Reference   
   Average 22 (47.8) 39 (28.3) 3.8 1.5-9.8 0.01
   Poor 16 (34.8) 46 (33.3) 2.4 0.9-6.4 0.08
2. Household sanitary and hygiene conditions     
Household's sanitary conditions overall      
   Good 20 (43.5) 40 (29.0) Reference   
   Average 12 (26.1) 50 (36.2) 0.5 0.2-1.1 0.08
   Poor 14 (30.4) 48 (34.8) 0.6 0.3-1.3 0.21
Type of latrine in the household      
   Water latrine (septic tank, biogas) 15 (32.6) 47 (34.1) Reference   
   Dry latrine (single or double vault) 29 (63.0) 87 (63.0) 1.1 0.5-2.2 0.89
   No latrine 2 (4.4) 4 (2.9) 1.7 0.2-11.2 0.61
Household use of tap water      
   No 24 (52.2) 89 (64.5) Reference   
   Yes 22 (47.8) 49 (35.5) 1.7 0.9-3.4 0.13
Household use of tube well water      
   No 16 (34.8) 53 (38.4) Reference   
   Yes 30 (65.2) 85 (61.6) 1.2 0.6-2.5 0.64
Household use of rainwater      
   No 5 (10.9) 12 (8.7) Reference   
   Yes 41 (89.1) 126 (91.3) 0.8 0.3-2.4 0.66
Close contact with domestic animals in household     
   No 9 (19.6) 42 (30.4) Reference   
   Yes 37 (80.4) 96 (69.6) 1.9 0.8-4.4 0.15
3. Exposed to human and animal excreta     
Composting of human excreta in the household     
   No 22 (47.8) 60 (43.5) Reference   
   Yes 24 (52.2) 78 (56.5) 0.8 0.4-1.7 0.59
Use of human excreta for application in field     
   No 18 (39.1) 62 (44.9) Reference   
   Yes 28 (60.9) 76 (55.1) 1.3 0.6-2.6 0.48
Handling human excreta in field work      
   No 22 (47.8) 61 (44.2) Reference   
   Yes 24 (52.2) 77 (55.8) 0.8 0.4-1.8 0.61
Compound with animal husbandry      
   No 6 (13.0) 25 (18.1) Reference   
   Yes 40 (87.0) 113 (81.9) 1.5 0.6-4.0 0.42
Composting of animal excreta in the compound     
   No 31 (67.4) 79 (57.3) Reference   
   Yes 15 (32.6) 59 (42.7) 0.7 0.3-1.3 0.23
Use of animal excreta as fertiliser in the fields     
   No 25 (54.3) 69 (50.0) Reference   
   Yes 21 (45.7) 69 (50.0) 0.8 0.4-1.7 0.59
Handling animal excreta in field work     
   No 31 (67.4) 69 (50.0) Reference   
   Yes 15 (32.6) 69 (50.0) 0.5 0.2-0.9 0.03
4. Exposed to water from Nhue river and local pond     
Direct contact with Nhue river water during field work     
   No 30 (65.2) 72 (52.2) Reference   
   Yes 16 (34.8) 66 (47.8) 0.6 0.3-1.2 0.12
Use local pond for fishing, bathing, washing      
   No 32 (69.6) 95 (68.9) Reference   
   Yes 14 (30.4) 43 (31.1) 1.0 0.5-2.1 0.92
Use Nhue river water to irrigate fields      
   No 1 (2.2) 13 (9.4) Reference   
   Yes 45 (97.8) 125 (90.6) 4.6 0.6-35.4 0.15
5. Personal hygiene habits      
Use protective measures (gloves, boots and face mask) at work     
   No 28 (60.9) 63 (45.6) Reference   
   Yes 18 (39.1) 75 (54.4) 0.5 0.3-1.1 0.07
Showering, bathing (with soap) after field work      
   Frequently 9 (19.6) 48 (34.8) Reference   
   Sometimes 19 (41.3) 49 (35.5) 2.2 0.9-5.5 0.09
   Rarely 18 (39.1) 41 (29.7) 2.3 1.0-5.6 0.06
Washing hands after field work      
   Frequently 30 (65.2) 108 (78.3) Reference   
   Sometimes 3 (6.5) 9 (6.5) 1.6 0.4-7.0 0.50
   Rarely 13 (28.3) 21 (15.2) 3.4 1.2-10.0 0.02
Washing hands with soap after field work      
   Frequently 9 (19.6) 50 (36.2) Reference   
   Sometimes 14 (30.4) 43 (31.2) 1.8 0.7-5.1 0.24
   Rarely 23 (50.0) 45 (32.6) 3.0 1.2-7.4 0.02
Eating leftover food from day before      
   No 13 (28.3) 42 (30.4) Reference   
   Yes 33 (71.7) 96 (69.6) 1.1 0.5-2.3 0.78
Eating raw vegetables the day before      
   No 44 (95.6) 130 (94.2) Reference   
   Yes 2 (4.4) 8 (5.8) 0.72 0.1-3.7 0.70
Water source for drinking      
   Rainwater 42 (91.3) 129 (93.5) Reference   
   Tube well water 4 (8.7) 9 (6.5) 1.4 0.4-4.9 0.61