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Table 3 Results from bivariate non-random and random effects multivariate logistic regression models for risk factors of specific intestinal parasitic infections among schoolchildren in western Tajikistan, early 2009

From: Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan

Explanatory variable Giardia intestinalis Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar Hymenolepis nana
  Bivariate model a Multivariate model b Bivariate model a Multivariate model b Bivariate model a Multivariate model b
  OR (95% CI) P-value c OR 95% CI P-value c OR (95% CI) P-value c OR 95% CI P-value c OR 95% CI P-value c OR 95% CI P-value c
Demography                   
   Sex                   
Male 1.00       1.00       1.00      
Female 0.97 (0.68, 1.40) 0.889     0.91 (0.64, 1.33) 0.652     1.27 (0.87, 1.86) 0.211    
   Age (years)                   
7-8 1.00       1.00       1.00      
9 0.74 (0.46, 1.18)      0.73 (0.45, 1.17)      0.91 (0.56, 1.49)     
10-11 0.79 (0.48, 1.30) 0.440     0.80 (0.48, 1.34) 0.421     0.80 (0.47, 1.36) 0.695    
Socioeconomic status                   
   Bottom 40% 1.00       1.00       1.00    1.00   
   Middle 40% 1.00 (0.66, 1.51)      0.82 (0.55, 1.24)      0.58 (0.38, 0.90)   0.69 (0.42, 1.12)  
   Top 20% 1.22 (0.75, 1.99) 0.680     0.55 (0.32, 0.93) 0.075     0.88 (0.53, 1.46) 0.046 1.06 (0.60, 1.87) 0.223
Weekly meat consumption                   
   < 1 times per week 0.61 (0.40, 0.94) 0.022 0.70 (0.45, 1.09) 0.112             
   3-4 times per week              0.66 (0.39, 1.12) 0.112 0.76 (0.43, 1.35) 0.125
   ≥5 times per week        0.57 (0.29, 1.12) 0.084          
Livestock                   
   No livestock 0.60 (0.30, 1.19) 0.130 0.51 (0.24, 1.11) 0.072        0.51 (0.24, 1.06) 0.056    
   Bullock 1.60 (0.91, 2.83) 0.110 1.63 (0.87, 3.07) 0.131 0.64 (0.32, 1.26) 0.178 0.58 (0.27, 1.24) 0.143 0.58 (0.28, 1.19) 0.121 0.76 (0.35, 1.64) 0.169
   Horse/donkey        1.48 (0.99, 2.22) 0.056          
   Goat        1.34 (0.89, 2.01) 0.170          
   Sheep 0.71 (0.45, 1.14) 0.146     1.61 (1.05, 2.48) 0.030     0.73 (0.46, 1.17) 0.180 0.71 (0.43, 1.18) 0.089
   Poultry        1.54 (1.05, 2.25) 0.027 1.43 (0.95, 2.14) 0.089 1.95 (1.31, 2.90) < 0.001 2.04 (1.34, 3.12) 0.001
Hygiene behaviour                   
Washing hands after defecation
with soap
                  
Rarely/sometimes 1.00       1.00       1.00      
Often/always 1.14 (0.95, 1.37) 0.160     1.15 (0.96, 1.39) 0.134     1.14 (0.94, 1.39) 0.182    
   Eating unpeeled fruits                   
Rarely/sometimes        1.00    1.00         
Often/always        0.83 (0.68, 1.02) 0.073 0.86 (0.69, 1.07) 0.177       
   Eating raw vegetables                   
Rarely/sometimes        1.00            
Often/always        1.43 (0.97, 2.12) 0.076          
   Wearing sandals outside in summer 0.30 (0.11, 0.84) 0.024                
Wearing closed shoes outside
in summer
3.39 (1.12, 10.25) 0.033 3.26 (1.01, 10.43) 0.047             
Sanitation                   
   Toilet in household 0.70 (0.47, 1.03) 0.077     0.76 (0.51, 1.14) 0.192          
   Toilet in yard 1.47 (0.99, 2.19) 0.060 1.37 (0.88, 2.13) 0.163 1.33 (0.89, 1.98) 0.173 1.39 (0.89, 2.18) 0.149       
Source of drinking water                   
   Water tap in yard (shared with neighbours)        1.90 (0.95, 3.81) 0.079          
   Public tap/standpipe 0.35 (0.12, 1.00) 0.027 0.27 (0.05, 1.39) 0.094        0.42 (0.16, 1.11) 0.056 0.37 (0.12, 1.13) 0.057
   Protected spring        0.52 (0.31, 0.88) 0.010 0.41 (0.23, 0.74) 0.002 0.42 (0.20, 0.88) 0.013 0.44 (0.20, 0.97) 0.020
   Surface water: river        1.57 (0.97, 2.52) 0.071          
   Surface water: stream        0.35 (0.08, 1.53) 0.113 0.27 (0.06, 1.24) 0.054       
   Surface water: river/stream              1.36 (0.86, 2.14) 0.195    
  1. a Crude odds ratio
  2. b School-level random effect included
  3. c P-value based on likelihood ratio test (LRT
  4. * Outcome: G. intestinalis, E. histolytica/E. dispar and H. nana. Explanatory variables: demographic, socioeconomic, hygiene behaviour and sources of drinking water.