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Table 2 Ocular tissue affected and symptoms caused by zoonotic helminths (Genus and/or Species) at different stage [41, 63].

From: Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

Ocular tissue affected Signs Helminths involved
Eyebrows and eyelids Eye lid edema Taenia solium (cysticercus), Spirometra, Ancyclostoma, A. Americana Gnathostoma, Toxocara, Trichinella, Dirofilaria
Lacrimal duts and glands Lacrymation Mammomonogamus, Thelazia
Orbit Exophthalmos Echinococcus, coenurus, Taenia solium (cysticercus), spargana, Trichinella, Dirofilaria, Gnathostoma
Ocular muscles Diplopia Trichinella, Angiostrongylus, Ancyclostoma, spargana,
Conjunctiva Subconjunctival cysts Taenia, Dirofilaria, Acanthocheilonema, Habronema, Mansonella, spargana, Philophthalmus
  Chemosis and conjunctivitis Thelazia, Trichinella, Onchocerca
  Hemorrhages Trichinella
Cornea Keratitis, scleritis Onchocerca, Toxocara, Ancylostoma
Anterior chamber Parasites in the anterior Chamber Onchocerca, Schistosoma, Taenia, spargana, Angiostrongylus, Gnathostoma, Toxocara, Dirofilaria, Thelazia, Acanthocheilonema
  Cysts in the anterior chamber Taenia
  Hypopyon Taenia, Gnathostoma, Toxocara
  Secondary glaucoma Taenia, Echinococcus, Angiostrongylus, Dirofilaria, Onchocerca spp., Gnathostoma, Toxocara
Iris Mydriasis Trichinella
  Distortion of the pupil Onchocerca
  Iritis and iridocyclitis Taenia, Angiostrongylus, Ancyclostoma, Trichinella Toxocara, Onchocerca, Pelecitus
Vitreous body Hemorrhages Trichinella, cysticercus, Gnathostoma
  Cysts Cysticercus, Echinococcus, coenurus
  Parasites in the vitreous Cyclitis spargana, Acanthocheilonema, Dirofilaria, Onchocerca Gnathostoma, Onchocerca, Toxocara, Trichinella
Optic nerve Papilledema, papillitis, and optic atrophy Taenia, Ancylostyoma, Toxocyara, Trichinella, Onchocerca
Retina and chorioidea Hemorrhages Ancylostoma, Gnathostoma, Toxocara, Trichinella
  Retinal detachment Taenia
  Cysts Echinococcus
  Retinitis and choroiditis Baylisascaris, Taenia, Toxocara, Trichinella, Onchocerca