Skip to main content

Table 1 Major canine vector-borne diseases

From: The immunopathology of canine vector-borne diseases

Infectious Agent Arthropod Vectors Zoonotic Potential Reference
Leishmania infantum Phlebotomus sandflies (old world) Dog is major reservoir of infection [17]
(Leishmania chagasi) Lutzomyia sandflies (new world)   
Babesia vogeli Rhipicephalus sanguineus Not with canine pathogens [103]
Babesia canis Dermacentor spp.   
Babesia rossi Haemaphysalis leachi   
Other large Babesia    
Babesia gibsoni Haemaphysalis spp.
Rhipicephalus sanguineus?
Babesia conradae Unknown   
Babesia microti-like (also known as Theileria annae) Ixodes hexagonus (suspected)   
Hepatozoon canis Rhipicephalus sanguineus Unlikely due to mode of transmission (ingestion of vector) [104]
Hepatozoon americanum Amblyomma maculatum   
Ehrlichia canis Rhipicephalus sanguineus E. ewingii and E. chaffeensis are human pathogens, but role of the dog as a reservoir is unproven; human infections with E. canis are reported [105, 106]
Ehrlichia ewingii Amblyomma americanum   
Ehrlichia chaffeensis Amblyomma americanum   
Anaplasma phagocytophilum Ixodes ricinus Important human pathogen [105107]
Anaplasma platys Rhipicephalus sanguineus (suspected) None recognized unequivocally [105, 106]
Rickettsia rickettsii (Americas) Dermacentor andersoni Important human pathogen; people may become infected whilst removing engorged ticks from dogs; dogs maintain infested tick population in the domestic environment [105]
  Dermacentor variablis   
Rickettsia conorii (Europe, Asia, Africa) Rhipicephalus sanguineus   
Borrelia (multiple species but primarily B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. afzelii) Ixodes ticks (multiple species) Dog is an 'accidental host' but may carry ticks into the domestic environment [108, 109]
Bartonella vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii Ticks proposed (fleas for cats) Unknown if dogs are competent reservoirs; B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (predominant canine isolate) is a rare cause of human infections [36, 40]
Bartonella henselae    
Bartonella clarridgeiae    
Bartonella rochalimae    
Bartonella quintana    
Bartonella washoensis    
Dirofilaria immitis Mosquitoes Rare human infections; incidental host [110]
Mycoplasma haemocanis Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum Rhipicephalus sanguineus (proposed) No evidence for human infection [111]