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Table 3 Association of demographic and diseases factors with the false positive results of DDIA

From: Performance of a dipstick dye immunoassay for rapid screening of Schistosoma japonicum infection in areas of low endemicity

Variables No. (%) of participants with the following DDIA results Crude OR (95% CI) P value Adjusted OR (95% CI) P value
  Negative (n = 3196) False positive (n = 2825 )     
Demographic       
Sex       
Female 1696 (53.07) 1500 (51.89) 1.00 0.36 1.00 0.27
male 1466 (46.93) 1359 (48.11) 1.05(0.95-1.16)   1. 07 (0.95-1.19)  
Age       
≤15 875 (27.38) 420 (14.87) 1.00   1.00  
16-25 186 (5.82) 143 (5.06) 1.60 (1.25-2.05) <0.001 1.38 (0.97-1.97) 0.08
26-35 230 (7.20) 330 (11.68) 2.99 (2.44-3.67) <0.001 2.21 (1.47-3.33) <0.001
36-45 609 (19.06) 828 (29.31) 2.83 (2.42-3.31) <0.001 1.85 (1.26-2.74) <0.05
46-55 616 (19.27) 601 (21.27) 2.03 (1.73-2.39) <0.001 1.22 (0.82-1.82) 0.32
56-65 680 (21.28) 503 (17.81) 1.54 (1.31-1.82) <0.001 0.93 (0.63-1.38) 0.72
Occupation       
farmer 1943 (60.79) 1874 (66.34) 1.00   1.00  
fisherman or boatman 135 (4.22) 290 (10.27) 2.23 (1.80-2.76) <0.001 1.75 (1.40-2.17) <0.001
student 888 (27.78) 442 (15.65) 0.52 (0.45-0.59) <0.001 0.97 (0.67-1.40) 0.87
others 230 (7.20) 219 (7.75) 0.99 (0.81-1.20) 0.90 0.98 (0.79-1.20) 0.82
Education       
illiteracy 556 (17.40) 506 (17.91) 1.00   1.00  
< high school 2454 (76.78) 2125 (75.22) 0.95 (0.83-1.09) 0.47 0.98 (0.84-1.15) 0.81
high school 76 (2.38) 81 (2.87) 1.17 (0.84-1.64) 0.36 1.05 (0.73-1.53) 0.79
college and above 110 (3.44) 113 (4.00) 1.13 (0.85-1.51) 0.41 1.36 (0.99-1.86) 0.06
Disease factors
History of schistosome infection
No 1614 (50.50) 783 (27.72) 1.00 <0.001 1.00 <0.001
Yes 1582 (49.50) 2042 (72.28) 2.70 (2.42-3.01)   2.47 (2.19-2.79)  
Other helminthes infection
no 3053(95.53) 2711 (95.96) 1.00 0.40 1.00 0.50
yes 143(4.47) 114 (4.04) 0.90 (0.70-1.15)   0.91 (0.70-1.19)  
  1. OR : Odds ratio, 95% CI: 95% confidence intervals