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Table 4 Bivariate and adjusted association of Schistosoma haematobium by risk factors among subjects recruited in the household survey, SK, Sudan 2009

From: Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths among an adult population in a war affected area, Southern Kordofan state, Sudan

Variable   Crude Adjusted
   OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Location Urban 1 Removed
  Rural 1.85 (1.09-3.12)  
Geographic part within the State Middle - -
Eastern 1 1
Western 4.24 (2.5-7.1) 3.83 (2.28-6.42)
Relation in the Family Father 1 Removed
  Mother 3.07 (1.44-6.54)  
  Suns 2.04 (0.93-4.50)  
  Daughter 1.70 (0.79-3.64)  
  Relative 1.60 (0.75-3.43)  
Gender Female 1 1
  Male 0.58 (0.38-0.87) 0.61 (0.40-1.94)
Age ≤ 20 yrs 1 Not included
  21-40 yrs 0.84 (0.54-1.30)  
  >40 yrs 1.10 (0.69-1.69)  
Education Above primary 1 Removed
  Primary 3.07 (1.29-7.32)  
  Illiterate 3.29 (1.42-7.64)  
Occupation Other 1 Removed
  Unemployed/Housewife 2.26 (1.20-4.26)  
  Farmer 3.34 (1.76-6.33)  
Source of water Closed (pipe/Pump) 1 Removed
  Open 1.43 (0.99-2.05)  
Latrines Available 1 Not included
  Not available 1.18 (0.82-1.70)  
Latrine use Preferred 1 1
  Not preferred 1.51 (1.05-2.18) 1.63 (1.11-2.41)
Distance from home to nearest open water source ≥ 1 Km 1 Removed
< 1 Km 1.09 (1.07-1.10)  
Household utilization of open water sources No 1 1
Yes 5.13 (2.58-10.19) 2.10 (1.03-4.28)
Personal utilization (Bath/swim) of open water sources No 1 Removed
Yes 3.96 (1.99-7.88)  
Health facility in the same village Present 1 Removed
Absent 1.62 (1.12-2.32)  
History of Schistosomiasis treatment No 1 1
  Yes 3.72 (1.97-7.04) 4.19 (2.10-8.37)