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Table 3 Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis infection according to housing characteristics.

From: Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia duodenalis infection among children: A case study in Portugal

Risk factor (total n*) n Positive results (%) p Risk Estimate (OR) OR Confidence Interval (95%)
Residence (833)      
Rural 242 13 (5.3) 0.364 0.71 0.37 - 1.34
Urban 591 44 (7.4)   1.00  
Housing (843)      
Apartment 578 40 (6.9) 0.638 1.16 0.63 - 2.13
House 248 15 (6.0)   1.00  
Water system (839)      
Yes 834 55 (6.5) 0.293 0.28 0.03 - 2.57
No 5 1 (20.0)   1.00  
Electricity (842)      
Yes 840 55 (6.5) 0.129 0.07 0.00 - 1.14
No 2 1 (50.0)   1.00  
System drainage (839)      
Yes 834 54 (6.4) 0.038 0.10 0.02 - 0.64
No 5 2 (40.0)   1.00  
Bathroom (841)      
Yes 834 55 (6.5) 0.187 0.14 0.01 - 1.57
No 5 1 (33.3)   1.00  
Garden (802)      
Yes 176 11 (6.3) 0.740 0.84 0.43 - 1.66
No 626 46 (7.3)   1.00  
Back yard (777)      
Yes 201 8 (3.9) 0.073 0.49 0.23 - 1.06
No 576 45 (7.8)   1.00  
Terrace (762)      
Yes 206 13 (6.3) 0.750 0.87 0.46 - 1.66
No 556 40 (7.1)   1.00  
Pets (839)      
Yes 452 22 (4.8) 0.026 0.53 0.31 - 0.93
No 387 34 (8.7)   1.00  
Dog (844)      
Yes 246 10 (4.1) 0.050 0.50 0.23 - 1.00
No 598 47 (7.8)   1.00  
Cat (844)      
Yes 89 4 (4.5) 0.503 0.62 0.22 - 1.77
No 755 53 (7.0)   1.00  
Rat (844)      
Yes 29 1 (3.4) 0.715 0.48 0.07 - 3.62
No 815 56 (6.8)   1.00  
Pets indoor      
Dog (844)      
Yes 101 3 (3.0) 0.137 0.39 0.12 - 1.27
No 743 54 (7.2)   1.00  
Cat (844)      
Yes 56 2 (3.6) 0.577 0.49 0.12 - 2.08
No 788 55 (6.9)   1.00  
Rat (844)      
Yes 24 1 (4.2) 1.000 0.59 0.08 - 4.47
No 820 56 (6.8)   1.00  
Pets outdoor      
Dog (844)      
Yes 161 7 (4.3) 0.222 0.58 0.26 - 1.29
No 683 50 (7.3)   1.00  
Cat (844)      
Yes 37 2 (5.4) 1.000 0.78 0.18 - 3.33
No 807 55 (6.8)   1.00  
Rat (844)      
Yes 3 0 (0.0) 1.000 - -
No 841 57 (6.7)    
  1. * Numbers in parenthesis refers to sample size used for each variable after discharging children with missing data on the questionnaires. Statistically significant P values (< 0.05) are highlighted in boldface.