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Figure 8 | Parasites & Vectors

Figure 8

From: Where are the parasites in food webs?

Figure 8

Typical pattern of standing stock biomass pyramids of a black water stream in New Jersey (black), and the estimates of actual production energy at each trophic level (grey). Parasites were included in the appropriate predator and consumer trophic levels. These data suggest that the real energetic costs at lower trophic levels (grey) can be significantly higher than estimates according to the rule of 10 (Lettini and Sukhdeo, in prep.).

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