The use dependent effect of flumethrin. Figure 1a illustrates the three states of the voltage-gated sodium channel (closed, open and inactivated). Flumethrin binds preferentially to the open state of the Na-channel and keeps the channel open as indicated by the experiment shown in Figure 1b: In this experiment, flumthrin is applied (10 μM, green bar) to an isolated insect nerve cell in the whole cell voltage clamp configuration (holding potential Vc = -100 mV, Na+ channels closed). During the experiment 20 short current pulses (downward arrows, every 1250 ms) were applied to change the holding potential from -100 mV to -10 mV to activate the voltage-gated Na channels (the thin downward lines reflect the Na currents induced by opening of the Na channels). Because flumethrin caused a downward change in the membrane current after Na+ channel opening only and not during the much longer resting phase, this experiment clearly demonstrated the use-dependent effect of flumethrin. (Figure 1a modified from: reference ).