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Table 4 Results of Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests on prevalence values for each STH species, between GRUMP-UE defined urban (U) and rural (R) survey pairs

From: The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010

   Number of pairs
Total U ≥ R U < R p j
Global a      
 Hookworm   57 22 35 <0.001
 A. lumbricoides   57 32 25 0.5
 T. trichiura   57 26 31 0.5
By urban sanitation coverage b
 Hookworm <30% c 10 5 5 0.8
  30-50% d 39 14 25 <0.001
  >50% e 8 3 5 0.06
 A. lumbricoides <30% c 10 3 7 0.3
  30-50% d 39 25 14 0.9
  >50% e 8 3 4 0.6
 T. trichiura <30% c 10 4 6 0.5
  30-50% d 39 18 21 0.6
  >50% e 8 3 4 0.7
By GINI coefficient f
 Hookworm <30% g 14 6 8 0.1
  30-50% h 37 12 22 0.005
  >50% i 6 1 5 0.05
 A. lumbricoides <30% 14 8 6 0.5
  30-50% h 37 22 15 0.5
  >50% i 6 2 4 0.1
 T. trichiura <30% g 14 5 9 0.9
  30-50% h 37 18 19 0.4
  >50% i 6 3 3 0.5
  1. a Matched pair data are available for 50 cities in Africa, two cities in Asia and three cities in Latin America.
  2. b Urban sanitation coverage refers to the percentage of urban population with at least adequate access to sanitation (protected pit latrines and upwards) in 2008. Source: World Bank Databank.
  3. c Includes cities in Burundi (1) and Ethiopia (12).
  4. d Include cities in Argentina (1), Burkina Faso (1), Gambia (2), Ghana (4), India (1), Kenya (1), Liberia (5), Mali (11) Nepal (1), Nigeria (2), Sierra Leone (1), Tanzania (1), Uganda (5) and Zambia (1).
  5. e Includes cities in Argentina (1), Brazil (1), Gambia (2), Honduras (3) and Zambia (1).
  6. f GINI coefficient is an indicator of the distribution of income within society with 0% representing perfect equality and 100% perfect inequality. Source: the World Bank databank (http://data.worldbank.org/).
  7. g Includes cities in Ghana (4) Liberia (1) and Sierra Leone (1).
  8. h Include cities in Burkina Faso (1), Burundi (2), Ethiopia (12), India (1), Kenya (1), Mali (11), Nepal (1), Nigeria (2), Rwanda (2), Tanzania (1) and Uganda (5).
  9. i Includes cities in Brazil (1), Honduras (3) and Rwanda (2).
  10. j Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests.