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Table 1 Overview of the key drivers and their mode of action for change in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

From: Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

     Impact on spread or abundance at
KEY DRIVER Driver Mode of action of driver Impact on tick biology altitude latitude endemic zones
Climate Temperature Increased temperature during winter months Increased winter survival X X  
   Overall increased temperature (winter and summer) Extended development period X X  
  Rainfall Increased humidity Extended development period, increased survival    
  Snow cover insulation, preventing ground temperature falling below 0°C Increased winter survival X X  
  Extended vegetation period (increased temperature and reduced snow cover) Altitudinal and latitudinal expansion of deciduous woodland creating suitable conditions for Ixodes ricinus Improved microclimate with increased tick survival, and development X X  
   Dispersal of roe deer at higher altitude and latitude Enhanced dispersal and reproduction X X  
Anthropogenic Wildlife management Increased habitat for Ixodes ricinus Enhanced dispersal X X  
   Increased habitat for hosts Enhanced dispersal X X  
   Increased host abundance Enhanced reproduction    X
  Changes in land use patterns Increased habitat for Ixodes ricinus Enhanced dispersal    X
   increased habitat for hosts Enhanced dispersal    X
   Increased host abundance Enhanced reproduction    X
  Forest management Reforestation, creation of suitable habitats   X X X
Ecological / geographical factors Habitat structure and connectivity Increase in suitable environment Enhanced reproduction and development    X
   Improved hosts dispersal Enhanced dispersal    X
  Orientation of mountain slopes Impact on microclimate Impact on survival, development X   
  Host dispersal Behaviour adaptation of roe deer to human presence Enhanced tick reproduction and dispersal    X