Defensin expression analysis upon bacterial and Leishmania injection into the hemocoel of female L . longipalpis : Female L . longipalpis were microinjected with E . coli (dark gray bars) or L . mexicana suspensions (black bars) and collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after pathogen inoculation. Insects fed on sugar (white bars) or injected with LB medium (light gray bars) were used as controls. The relative defensin gene expression was normalized against the housekeeping internal control gene 60S-rRNA. Bar charts represent mean ± SEM of 3 pools of 3 insects. Asterisks represent statistical significance at P < 0.05.