Semi-quantitative analysis by RT-PCR of bacterial induction of AMPs in immunocyte cultures. AMPs expression was evaluated in An. stephensi (panel A) and D. melanogaster (panel B). Defensin (a), cecropin (b), gambicin (c, panel A) and drosomycin (c, panel B) expression at 0h, 4 h, 8 h and 12 h after Asaia or E. coli bacterial challenge. Actin (d) has been used as a constitutive control gene. The expression of AMPs has been evaluated after electrophoresis in 1% agarose gel, documentation was collected using a “Gel Doc XR” and digitally evaluated with “Quantity One” as schematized below each panel. One representative set of data out of 7 replicates is shown.