Localization of de novo GDP-L-fucose synthesis in miracidia and primary sporocysts of Schistosoma mansoni . Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to assess the localization of schistosome GMD and GMER in miracidia and 2- and 10-day in vitro-cultivated primary sporocysts. Fixed and permeabilized larvae were immunostained with membrane-purified chicken IgY raised against schistosome GMD and GMER (rows 2 and 4, respectively), and antibody reactivities were assessed relative to control larvae incubated with membrane-adsorbed pre-immune eluates (rows 1 and 3). Panels include paired micrographs depicting GMD/GMER expression (green) alone and merged with counterstained actin (e.g., muscles, flame cells; red) and DNA (e.g., nuclei; blue). Approximate scale is represented in the lower right corner (bar = 50 μm).