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Figure 2 | Parasites & Vectors

Figure 2

From: Development of guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe

Figure 2

Procedures and main issues of invasive mosquito species and mosquito-borne disease surveillance in Europe. Green rounded rectangles show sources of information and alerts on risks for IMS and MBD that justify surveillance; part of it is performed within VBORNET, the European network of medical entomologists and public health experts (upper light green rectangle). These guidelines focus and develop the central part (central yellow rectangle). The left part is already addressed within the WHO guidelines (light blue rectangle), whereas the lower part is dealt with by the EMCA/WHO initiative on guidelines (dark blue rectangle). Blue rounded rectangles show procedures for surveillance (light blue) and control (dark blue) of IMS. Red rounded rectangles show procedures that are addressed within MBDs risk plans alongside IMS surveillance and control. WHO Guidelines ( In the context of the application of the International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), WHO aims to strengthen national capacities by developing and updating guidelines and tools on vector surveillance and control. Thus, a web-based global point of entry (PoE) vector identification platform is under development, as well as a ‘Handbook on vector surveillance and control at points of entry’. This handbook focuses on actions that can be performed at PoE and on conveyances, containers, cargo, postal parcels and baggage. It considers all vector species (including mosquitoes) relevant to major MBDs. EMCA/WHO Guidelines: EMCA and WHO European Region have recently launched an initiative to develop ‘Guidelines for the control of invasive mosquitoes and associated vector-borne diseases on the European continent’, based on pan-European consultations. The first deliverable will be a strategy document with special emphasis on control issues.

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