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Table 1 Features of imported cases with schistosomiasis haematobia

From: Improving the management of imported schistosomiasis haematobia in China: lessons from a case with multiple misdiagnoses

1. Most infections occur in young adults who are exported to African countries for labor services.
2. Potential underestimation of actual number of cases. Most of the infections are detected at physical examinations, and few patients seek medical care; therefore, the actual number of patients with S. haematobium infections may be underestimated.
3. High proportion of misdiagnosis. The major clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis haematobia involve hematuresis, bladder irritation, and urinary tract obstruction, which are often misdiagnosed as sexually transmitted diseases, cystitis, tuberculosis and tumors due to the lack of knowledge on diagnosis of the disease in Chinese clinicians.
4. The cases are widely distributed in China, and have a high mobility [33].