Combined MrBayes tree of An. oswaldoi s.l. using ITS2 and COI sequences. Four groups are clearly defined An. oswaldoi s.s. (Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia and São Paulo, Brazil); An. oswaldoi A (Mato Grosso, Rondônia and Tefé, Brazil and Amazonas, Colombia); An. oswaldoi B from Colombia (Antioquia, Caquetá, Meta, Norte de Santander and Putumayo), Ecuador (Orellana) and Trinidad and Tobago (Valencia); and An. sp. nr. konderi from Ecuador (Orellana), Colombia (Caquetá) and Peru (Loreto and Madre de Dios). B: Bootstrap; P: Posterior probability. Anopheles konderi of Sallum from near Macapá, Amapá, Brazil, is clearly differentiated from the other species of the An. oswaldoi complex, and appears to sit within the Oswaldoi Group. *Outgroups: An. albitarsis F and An. nuneztovari C.