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Table 3 Potential risk factors associated with Blastocystis infection among the overall population studied (univariate analysis, n = 500)

From: Blastocystis infection in Malaysia: Evidence of waterborne and human-to-human transmissions among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes of Orang Asli

Variables No. examined Infected (%) OR (95% CI) p-value
Age (years)     
 <15 221 22.6 1.28 (0.83,1.97) 0.272
 ≥15 279 18.6 1
Gender     
 Female 281 21.7 1.20 (0.77,1.87) 0.411
 Male 219 18.7 1
Drinking untreated water     
 Yes 232 29.4 2.92 (1.84,4.63) <0.001a,b
 No 265 12.5 1
Bathing and washing in the river     
 Yes 143 23.8 1.33 (0.83,2.12) 0.236
 No 357 19.0 1
Not washing hands after playing with soil or gardening     
 Yes 197 25.0 1.58 (1.02,2.45) 0.040a
 No 303 17.4 1
Presence of domestic animals     
 Yes 309 20.1 0.96 (0.62,1.49) 0.862
 No 191 20.8 1
Indiscriminate defecation     
 Yes 192 22.9 1.28 (0.82,1.99) 0.270
 No 308 18.8 1
Sewage disposal     
 Outdoor 240 22.1 1.22 (0.79,1.87) 0.369
 Common drainage 260 18.8 1
Eating with hands     
 Yes 328 20.2 0.96 (0.60,1.52) 0.859
 No 172 20.9 1
Consuming raw vegetables     
 Yes 238 21.1 1.08 (0.70,1.68) 0.717
 No 262 19.8 1
Eating fresh fruits     
 Yes 395 18.4 0.63 (0.39,1.01) 0.055
 No 105 26.4 1
Father’s education     
 Non-educated (<6 yrs) 222 24.3 1.47 (0.76,2.83) 0.247
 Educated (>6 yrs) 78 17.9 1
Mother’s education     
 Non-educated (<6 yrs) 232 25.0 1.93 (0.93,4.03) 0.075
 Educated (>6 yrs) 68 14.7 1
Working mothers     
 Yes 153 23.8 1.15 (0.67,1.97) 0.625
 No 147 21.5 1  
Household members     
 ≥8 171 21.6 1.12 (0.71,1.77) 0.621
 <8 329 19.8 1
Household monthly income     
 <RM500 260 23.5 1.49 (0.96,2.32) 0.077
 >RM500 240 17.1 1
Other family members infected with Blastocystis     
 Yes 116 50.9 8.21 (5.07,13.30) <0.001a,b
 No 384 11.2 1
  1. RM = Malaysian Ringgit; (US$100 = RM307.85) [1st February 2013].
  2. Reference group marked as OR = 1 [OR = Odds Ratio].
  3. CI = Confidence interval.
  4. a Significant association (p < 0.05).
  5. b Variables were confirmed by multivariate analysis as significant risk factors.