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Table 4 Associations between Blastocystis infection and risk factors among different Orang Asli tribes

From: Blastocystis infection in Malaysia: Evidence of waterborne and human-to-human transmissions among the Proto-Malay, Negrito and Senoi tribes of Orang Asli

  Proto-Malay (n = 150) Negrito (n = 139) Senoi (n = 211)
 Variables No. examined Infected (%) OR p-value No. examined Infected (%) OR p-value No. examined Infected (%) OR p-value
(95% CI) (95% CI) (95% CI)
Age (years)
 <15 59 16.9 1.65 (0.64,4.26) 0.294 72 22.2 1.08 (0.48,2.43) 0.849 90 26.7 1.21 (0.64,2.67) 0.557
 ≥15 91 11.0 1   67 20.9 1   121 23.1 1
Gender
 Female 84 14.3 1.21 (0.46,3.15) 0.699 73 21.9 1.04 (0.46,2.34) 0.920 124 26.6 1.30 (0.68,2.48) 0.428
 Male 66 12.1 1   66 21.2 1   87 21.8 1
Drinking untreated water
 Yes 9 44.4 6.25 (1.52,25.70) 0.019a,b 79 28.0 2.79 (1.10,7.03) 0.026a,b 144 29.2 2.35 (1.10,5.03) 0.025a,b
 No 141 11.3 1   60 12.3 1   67 14.9 1
Bathing and washing in the river
 Yes 7 14.3 1.09 (0.12,9.54) 0.939 63 28.6 2.13 (0.94,4.86) 0.068 73 20.5 0.71 (0.36,1.40) 0.315
 No 143 13.3 1   76 15.8 1   138 26.8 1
Not washing hands after playing with soil or gardening
 Yes 27 11.5 0.82 (0.22,3.04) 0.767 91 22.0 1.07 (0.46,2.52) 0.876 79 32.9 2.00 (1.06,3.78) 0.031a
 No 123 13.7 1   48 20.8 1   132 19.7 1
Presence of domestic animals
 Yes 120 14.2 1.49 (0.41,5.44) 0.548 70 16.7 0.61 (0.26,1.45) 0.261 119 27.7 1.45 (0.77,2.81) 0.237
 No 30 10.0 1   69 24.7 1   92 20.7 1
Indiscriminate defecation
 Yes 7 14.3 1.09 (0.12,9.54) 0.939 91 23.1 1.30 (0.54,3.11) 0.555 94 23.4 0.89 (0.47,1.67) 0.708
 No 143 13.3 1   48 18.8 1   117 25.6 1
Sewage disposal
 Outdoor 21 9.5 0.65 (0.14,3.03) 0.580 106 21.7 1.03 (0.40,2.67) 0.953 113 24.8 1.02 (0.54,1.90) 0.961
 Common drainage 129 14.0 1   33 21.2 1   98 24.5 1
Eating with hands
 Yes 70 12.0 0.79 (0.31,2.04) 0.631 105 22.4 1.25 (0.46,3.40) 0.657 153 22.6 0.67 (0.34,1.32) 0.247
 No 80 14.7 1   34 18.8 1   58 30.4 1
Consuming raw vegetables
 Yes 63 12.7 0.91 (0.35,2.37) 0.846 113 24.6 3.74 (0.83,16.89) 0.068 62 23.1 0.88 (0.46,1.76) 0.724
 No 87 13.8 1   26 8.0 1   149 25.3 1
Eating fresh fruits
 Yes 129 14.7 3.46 (0.44,27.28) 0.213 122 19.7 0.45 (0.15,1.34) 0.142 144 21.0 0.62 (0.33,1.17) 0.139
 No 21 4.8 1   17 35.3 1   67 29.9 1
Father’s education
 Non-educated (<6 yrs) 54 14.8 1.00 (0.27,3.67) 1.000 68 26.5 2.04 (0.53,7.79) 0.290 100 28.0 1.33 (0.52,3.44) 0.551
 Educated (>6 yrs) 27 14.8 1   20 15.0 1   31 22.6 1
Mother’s education
 Non-educated (<6 yrs) 53 18.9 3.02 (0.61,14.89) 0.158 77 22.1 0.50 (0.13,1.90) 0.298 102 30.4 2.73 (0.88,8.50) 0.075
 Educated (>6 yrs) 28 7.1 1   11 36.4 1   29 13.8 1
Working mothers
 Yes 45 15.6 1.14 (0.33,3.95) 0.834 33 25.8 1.18 (0.43,3.25) 0.753 75 28.0 1.17 (0.53,2.56) 0.701
 No 36 13.9 1   55 22.8 1   56 25.0 1
Household members
 ≥8 32 12.5 0.91 (0.28,2.94) 0.876 63 25.4 1.51 (0.67,3.39) 0.320 76 22.4 0.82 (0.42,1.60) 0.565
 <8 118 13.6 1   76 18.4 1   135 25.9 1
Household monthly income
 <RM500 17 17.6 1.46 (0.38,5.62) 0.578 115 24.3 3.54 (0.78,16.01) 0.083 128 23.4 0.85 (0.45,1.60) 0.613
 >RM500 133 12.8 1   24 8.3 1   83 26.5 1
Other family members infected with Blastocystis
 Yes 18 61.1 21.48 (6.70,68.82) <0.001a,b 33 48.5 6.19 (2.55,14.98) <0.001a,b 65 49.2 6.11 (3.10,12.03) <0.001a,b
 No 132 6.8 1   106 13.2 1   146 13.7 1
  1. RM = Malaysian Ringgit; (US$100 = RM307.85) [1st February 2013].
  2. Reference group marked as OR = 1 [OR = Odds Ratio].
  3. CI = Confidence interval.
  4. a Significant association (p < 0.05).
  5. b Variables were confirmed by multivariate analysis as significant risk factors.