Nitrite (A) and TNF-α (B) production by IFN-γ primed macrophages stimulated with LPG and live parasites. C, negative control; LPGb, L. braziliensis LPG; LPGi, L. infantum LPG; Lb, L. braziliensis live promastigotes and Li, L. infantum live promastigotes. Cells were pre-incubated with IFN-γ (3 IU/ml) for 18 h then 10 μg/mL of LPG. As a positive control, LPS (100 ng/mL) was added. Fresh medium alone was added to negative control cells. Supernatants were collected 48 hours later. Nitrite concentration was measured by Griess reaction and cytokine concentrations were determined by flow cytometry. ANOVA test was performed and P < 0.05 was considered significant.