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Table 3 Epidemiological surveys of co-infection between TB and parasitic diseases

From: Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans: a systematic review

Country Year of report No. of population screened (a) No. of people with TB (b) People with parasitic disease (c) No. of people co-infected (d) Prevalence (%) Survey site HIV test No. of reference
     No. Species   d/a d/b d/c    
Korea 1984   329   Trichocephalus trichiurus 68   20.7   Hospital1 Unknown [30]
    215   Trichocephalus trichiurus 14   6.5   Hospital2 Unknown  
    329   Clonorchis sinensis 58   17.6   Hospital1 Unknown  
    215   Clonorchis sinensis 13   6.0   Hospital2 Unknown  
Sudan 2004 382 100 252 Leishmania donovani 77 20.2 77.0 30.6 Community Unknown [31]
Ethiopia 2006 782 100 234 Intestinal parasites 32 4.1 32.0 13.7 Hospital Unknown [32]
   782 100 155 Helminths 16 2.0 16.0 10.3 Hospital Unknown  
      Parasites species        
   782 100 88 Ascaris lumbricoides 5 0.6 5.0 5.7 Hospital Unknown  
   782 100 70 Giardia lamblia 15 1.9 15.0 21.4 Hospital Unknown  
   782 100 50 Entamoeba histolytica 10 1.3 10.0 20.0 Hospital Unknown  
   782 100 36 Hookworm 6 0.8 6.0 16.7 Hospital Unknown  
   782 100 25 Taenia species 2 0.3 2.0 8.0 Hospital Unknown  
   782 100 13 Strongyloides stercoralis 5 0.6 5.0 38.5 Hospital Unknown  
   782 100 8 Trichuris trichiura 1 0.1 1.0 12.5 Hospital Unknown  
Tanzania 2007   309   Malaria 19   6.1   Hospital HIV positive [33]
    309   Schistosomiasis 100   32.4   Hospital HIV positive  
    309   Hookworm 33   10.7   Hospital HIV positive  
    346   Malaria 9   2.6   Hospital HIV negative  
    346   Schistosomiasis 132   38.2   Hospital HIV negative  
    346   Hookworm 86   24.9   Hospital HIV negative  
Ethiopia 2012   112   Intestinal helminths 32   28.6   Community 47% (53/112) of PTB patients were HIV positive [34]
    112   Ascaris lumbricoides 12   10.7   Community  
    112   Hookworm 8   7.1   Community  
    112   Schistosoma mansoni 6   5.4   Community  
    112   Trichuris trichiura 8   7.1   Community  
    112   Strongyloides stercoralis 3   2.7   Community