Skip to main content

Table 4 The interrelationship of infection between TB and parasitic diseases

From: Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans: a systematic review

Country Year of report Parasitic disease   PTB (+) PTB (−) RRrow(95% CI) P-value No. of reference
Sudan 2004 Leishmania donovani + 77 175 1.73 (1.14-2.62)   [31]
    _ 23 107 1.00   
   RR col (95% CI)   1.24 (1.08-1.43) 1.00   0.0067  
Ethiopia 2006 Intestinal parasites + 32 202 1.10 (0.74-1.63)   [32]
    _ 68 480 1.00   
   RR col (95% CI)   1.08 (0.79-1.47) 1.00   0.6272  
   Helminths + 16 139 0.77 (0.46-1.28)   
    _ 84 543 1.00   
   RR col (95% CI)   0.78 (0.49-1.26) 1.00   0.3047  
   Ascaris lumbricoides + 5 83 0.42 (0.17-0.99)   
    _ 95 599 1.00   
   RR col (95% CI)   0.41 (0.17-0.99) 1.00   0.0341  
   Giardia lamblia + 15 55 1.80 (1.10-2.93)   
    _ 85 627 1.00   
   RR col (95% CI)   1.86 (1.09-3.16) 1.00   0.0233  
   Entamoeba histolytica + 10 40 1.63 (0.90-2.93)   
    _ 90 642 1.00   
   RR col (95% CI)   1.70 (0.88-3.30) 1.00   0.1145  
   Hookworm + 6 30 1.32 (0.62-2.81)   
    _ 94 652 1.00   
   RR col (95% CI)   1.36 (0.58-3.19) 1.00   0.4451*  
   Taenia species + 2 23 0.62 (0.16-2.36)   
    _ 98 659 1.00   
   RR col (95% CI)   0.59 (0.14-2.48) 1.00   0.7594*  
   Strongyloides stercoralis + 5 8 3.11 (1.53-6.35)   
    _ 95 674 1.00   
   RR col (95% CI)   4.26 (1.42-12.77) 1.00   0.0172*  
   Trichuris trichiura + 1 7 0.98 (0.15-6.17)   
    _ 99 675 1.00   
   RR col (95% CI)   0.97 (0.12-7.84) 1.00   1.0000*  
  1. +: infected; -: noninfected; *: Fisher’s exact test; Abbreviation: PTB = pulmonary tuberculosis; RR = risk ratio; CI = confidence interval.