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Table 1 Summary of environmental covariates used and species for which these covariates were correlated in the previous binomial analysis

From: Spatio-temporal analysis of abundances of three malaria vector species in southern Benin using zero-truncated models

Environmental covariates * Sources Area of measurement †† Species for which the covariate has a significant effect in the binomial models[13]
Vector control interventions (TLLIN, ULLIN, ULLIN + CTPS, or TLLIN + IRS) [2] Village perimeter An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s.
Number of domestic breeding sites positives for Anopheles larvae per 100 houses Systematic inventory [13] Village perimeter (t) An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s.
Mean nocturnal temperatures 8-days Land Surface Temperature (LST) from the MODIS satellite [13] 2-km buffer (t) An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s.
Mean diurnal temperature 8-days LST from the MODIS satellite [13] 2-km buffer (t) An. funestus and An. coluzzii
Mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)§ 16-days NDVI from the MODIS satellite [13] 2-km buffer (t) An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s.
Cumulated rainfall Daily TRMM (3B42) satellite data [13] 2-km buffer (t) An. funestus, An. coluzzii, and An. gambiae s.s.
Number of rainy days Daily TRMM satellite data [13] 2-km buffer (t) An. coluzzii
Mean elevation SPOT Digital Elevation Model (DEM) [13] 2-km buffer An. gambiae s.s.
Mean slope SPOT satellite DEM [13] 2-km buffer An. gambiae s.s.
Count of sink SPOT DEM [13] 2-km buffer -
Theoretical flow accumulation SPOT DEM [13] 2-km buffer -
Area of hydromorphic soils Soil map [13] 2-km buffer An. funestus and An. coluzzii
Area of each land-cover class** Land-cover map [13] and systematic inventory 2-km buffer An. funestus and An. coluzzii
Edge densities of each land-cover class** Land-cover map [13] and systematic inventory 2-km buffer -
Number of patches of each land-cover class** Land-cover map [13] and systematic inventory 2-km buffer An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s.
Patch richness density of land-cover Land-cover map [13] and systematic inventory 2-km buffer -
Simpson’s diversity index of land-cover Land-cover map [13] and systematic inventory 2-km buffer -
Modified Simpson’s evenness index of land-cover Land-cover map [13] and systematic inventory 2-km buffer -
Length of roads SPOT satellite image [13] 2-km buffer An. gambiae s.s.
Number of neighbourhoods SPOT image [13] Village perimeter An. funestus and An. coluzzii
Population density Systematic inventory [2] Village perimeter -
Distance to the village perimeter Houses of collection GPS coordinates Village perimeter -
Normalized Spin index of the village shape SPOT image [13] Village perimeter -
Normalized Depth index of the village shape SPOT image [13] Village perimeter -
Number of cattle Systematic inventory [13] 2-km buffer An. gambiae s.s.
  1. *Definitions of the environmental variables, sources and methods used to produce them have been fully described in Moiroux et al.[13].
  2. TLLIN: Targeted distribution of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (to children under 6 and pregnant women; class of reference), ULLIN: Universal distribution of LLIN, CTPS: Carbamate Treated Plastic Sheeting, IRS: carbamate Indoor Residual Spraying.
  3. Mean temperature measured during the week of the catch and both weeks preceding the week of the catch. §average 16-day NDVI during the two-week period including the catch and the preceding 2-week period.
  4. During the 16 days preceding the catch.
  5. **Calculated for each of the 15 land-cover classes (surface freshwater, aquatic grassland , herb swamp, coco tree, eucalyptus tree, palm tree, teak tree, pineapple, rain fed agriculture, forest, degraded riparian forest, thicket, savannah, market gardening, and degraded surface) and for each of the four strata classes (unvegetated, herbaceous, shrub, and tree).
  6. ††(t): the covariate has a temporal dimension; 2-km buffer: 2-km radius buffer area around the village centre.