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Table 1 Definition of all climate and temporal variables used in the analyses

From: Climate and environmental change drives Ixodes ricinus geographical expansion at the northern range margin

Variable for both infield and rough grazing level Definition
Moose The number of bagged moose in the municipality (divided by size of municipality)
Red Deer The number of bagged red deer in the municipality (divided by size of municipality)
Roe Deer The number of bagged roe deer in the municipality (divided by size of municipality)
Sheep The number of sheep in the municipality (divided by size of municipality)
NuFarms The number of farms in the municipality (divided by size of municipality)
F_masl The meters above sea level at which the farm is situated
Humans The number of inhabitants in the municipality (divided by size of municipality)
Area Denoting district 1,2 and 3 (INLAND,COAST and FJORD)
Timespan Denoting the 3 decades; timespan 1(80s), timespan 2(90s) and timespan 3(00s)
Nu_patch Number of patches of bush encroachment in a 500-m radius
Meanarea_p Mean area of patches of bush encroachment intersected by a 500-m radius (m2)
Area shrubi Total area covered by patches of bush encroachment intersected by a 500-m radius (m2)
TMeanJan; TMeanFeb; etc.…. Daily mean air temperature; monthly basis
TMeanSDJan; TMeanSDFeb; etc… Daily mean air temperature standard deviation; monthly basis
TminJan; TminFeb; etc.. Lowest daily mean air temperature; monthly basis
TmaxJan; TmaxFeb; etc.. Highest daily mean air temperature; monthly basis
GrowSeasDays The length of the growing season. (1)
RRSumJan; RRSumFeb; etc.. Precipitation sum, monthly basis
RH > 70DaysJan; RH > 70DaysFeb; etc.. Number of days with relative humidity >70%; monthly basis
RHMeanJan; RHMeanFeb; etc.. Mean relative humidity; monthly basis
SatDefMeanJan.; SatDefMeanFeb; etc.. Mean saturation deficit; monthly basis. (2)
SatDef < 5DaysJan; SatDef < 5DaysFeb; etc.. Number of days with saturation deficit <5 mmHg; monthly basis
SnoStartDays Number of days in a hydrological year* to snow depth ≥2 cm (3)
SnoEndDays Number of days in a hydrological year* to snow depth ΓΫ ≤2 cm in spring
SnoDepth ≥ 2Days Number of days in a hydrological year* with snow depth ≥2 cm
SnoDepth1-2Days Number of days in a hydrological year* with snow depth of 1–2 cm
SnoDepth2-20Days Number of days in a hydrological year* with snow depth of 2–20 cm
SnoDepth > 20Days Number of days in a hydrological year* with snow depth >20 cm
SnoSum Sum of snow depth (cumulative) per hydrological year*
GSTminJan Lowest daily ground surface temperature (GST); monthly basis
GSTmaxJan Highest daily ground surface temperature (GST); monthly basis
FTDays-SnoDepth ≥ 2 Number of days in a hydrological year* with freeze-thaw events at ground surface with snow depth ≥ 2 cm. (4)
FTDays-SnoDepth < 2 Number of days in a hydrological year* with freeze-thaw events at ground surface with no snow cover or snow depth <2 cm.
BlackFrdays Number of days in a hydrological year* with black frost; daily GST < 0°C and ground bare of snow or snow depth < 2 cm.
TDecr÷5 < DaysJan; TDecr÷5 < DaysFeb; etc.. Number of days per month where temperature decrease in GST from a day to the next day are >5°C.
TDecr÷10 < DayJan; TDecr÷10 < DayFeb; etc.. Number of days per month where temperature decrease in GST from a day to the next day are >10°C.
TIncr + 5 < DaysJan; TIncr + 5 < DaysFeb; etc.. Number of days per month where temperature increase in GST from a day to the next day are >5°C.
TIncr + 10 < DaysJan; TIncr + 10 < DaysFeb; etc.. Number of days per month where temperature increase in GST from a day to the next day are >10°C.
  1. (1) Number of days between the end of the first continous 4-day period with a 24 h mean air temperature > 5°C and the beginning of the last continous 4-day period with a 24 h mean air temperature >5°C. (2) Saturation Deficit (SDF) is a measure of air humidity (in mmHg); it is the difference between actual and maximum vapour content: SDF = (1 − RH/100) × 4.9463 × e(0.0621T). RH is the daily mean RH (%), T is the daily mean air temperature (°C). (3) For all SnoDays variables and SnoSum the number of days refers to the hydrological year. (4) A freeze-thaw event is defined as when daily Ground Surface Temperature (GST) crosses 0°C from one day to the next. *A hydrological year is from 1 September – 31 August.