Dynamics of M1 and M2-related cytokine expression in macrophages during S. japonicum infection. Peritoneal macrophages were purified from normal or S. japonicum infected mice at indicated time points post-infection. Expression of TNF-α, IL-12p35 (A), IL-10 (B) mRNA was evaluated by real-time PCR. Transcript levels for each cytokine in macrophages are expressed as fold change over transcript levels in macrophage from normal mice (0 week). Data are expressed as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments with 6 mice per group in each experiment.