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Table 1 Overview of parasitic helminths found in Dutch red fox

From: Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period

  Males(n = 73) Females(n = 63) Overall(n = 136) Means of infection Method
Intestinal nematodes % n % n % n   
1. Toxocara canis1 71.2 52 49.2 31 61.0 83 worm eggs, paratenic hosts D, CSF
2. Toxascaris leonina 1.4 1 3.2 2 2.2 3 worm eggs, paratenic hosts CSF
3. Trichuris vulpis2 20.5 15 12.7 8 16.9 23 worm eggs CSF
4. Uncinaria stenocephala 60.3 44 47.6 30 54.4 74 free larvae, paratenic hots CSF, MS
5. Strongyloides sp. 9.6 7 20.6 13 14.7 20 free larvae CSF, MS
Other nematodes         
6. Eucoleus aerophilus (n = 96) 71.4 35 63.8 30 67.7 65 earthworms, worm eggs WS
7. Pearsonema plica (2/2) (2/2) (4/4)* worm eggs D. WS
8. Capillaria spp.3 52.1 38 47.6 30 50.0 68 worm eggs CSF
9. Angiostrongylus vasorum (n = 96) 6.1 3 2.1 1 4.2 4 terrestrial gastropods, frogs WS, CSF
10. Crenosoma vulpis (n = 96) 24.5 12 8.5 4 16.7 16 terrestrial gastropods WS, CSF
Intestinal cestodes         
11. Taenia crassiceps 21.9 16 22.2 14 22.1 30 rodents, lagomorpha D, MS, PCR
12. Taenia polyacantha
13. Mesocestoides litteratus 6.8 5 4.8 3 5.9 8 frogs, intermediate hosts D, MS, PCR
14. Echinococcus multilocularis 1.4 1 0.0 0 0.7 1 rodents, lagomorpha PCR
Intestinal trematodes         
15. Cryptocotyle lingua 4.1 3 3.2 2 3.7 5 fish MS
16. Isthmiophora melis 1.4 1 0.0 0 0.7 1 tadpoles MS
17. Alaria alata 17.8 13 15.9 10 16.9 23 tadpoles, frogs MS, PCR
  1. 1The observed prevalence in T. canis between male and female foxes is significantly different (Fisher’s Exact test, P = 0.013). 2This diagnosis was not confirmed by demonstrating adult worms in the colon. 3Capillaria spp. eggs were not identified to species level due to morphological changes as a result of freezing and thawing. Methods used for detection and speciation. D: dissection, CSF: centrifugal sedimentation/flotation, MS: mucosal scraping, WS: washing and sieving. Species number 6, 9 and 10 were obtained from heart and lung washings for which 96 foxes were available. *: Four out of four urine bladders were found positive for this species, but prevalence was not extrapolated from this limited number of analyses.