Phylogenetic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax from South America and Africa based on microsatellite genotypes (MLGs). Neighbour-joining dendrogram based on shared allele distance; bootstrap values are shown for the major nodes. Symbols represent the isolates and respective MLGs. Colours represent the following groups: a) formed exclusively by homogeneous Brazilian isolates (red) and one isolate from French Guiana (red with yellow borders), b) moderately heterogeneous Venezuelan (yellow) and Brazilian (yellow/red) isolates, c) highly heterogeneous isolates from West (green) and East (blue/green) Africa. Codes of the isolates in South American (TviBr = Brazil, TviVz = Venezuela, TviGuyane = French Guiana), West African (TviBf = Burkina Faso, TviK/TviDere = Ghana, TviBan = Benin, IL700 = Nigeria, Gambia = The Gambia) and East African (TviMz = Mozambique).