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Table 3 Key for ectoparasites identification

From: Dogs, cats, parasites, and humans in Brazil: opening the black box

1a Three pairs of legs 2
1b Four pairs of legs 13
2a Body laterally flattened (SIPHONAPTERA) 3
2b Body dorsoventrally flattened (PHTHIRAPTERA) 10
3a Pronotal and/or genal ctenidia present 4
3b Pronotal and genal ctenidia absent 6
4a Genal ctenidium absent and pronotal ctenidium present Nosopsyllus fasciatus
4b Genal and pronotal ctenidia present 5
5a Genal ctenidium with the first seta much shorter than the others (Figure 3A; arrowhead); posterior tibia with two simple setae between the penultimate and the last double setae (Figure 3A; arrows) Ctenocephalides canis
5b Genal ctenidium with the first seta approximately the same length of the remaining (Figure 3B; arrowhead); posterior tibia with one simple seta between the penultimate and the last double setae (Figure 3B; arrow) Ctenocephalides felis felis
6a Thoracic segments narrow (Figure 3C; arrow), ocular and occipital setae absent; front of the head angular (upturned) (Figure 3C; arrowhead) Tunga penetrans
6b Not as above 7
7a Abdominal segments with two rows of setae in the dorsal border Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi
7b Abdominal segments with one row of setae in the dorsal border 8
8a Occipital region with one seta (Figure 3D; arrow) Pulex irritans
8b Occipital region with two rows of setae arranged in a “V” 9
9a Male antepygidial seta inserted on a discrete tubercle; female with body of spermatheca (in black) not larger than the base of tail (Figure 3E) Xenopsylla cheopis
9b Male antepygidial seta inserted on a well-developed tubercle; female with body of spermatheca (in black) larger than the base of tail (Figure 3F) Xenopsylla brasiliensis
10a Head longer than large (Figure 3G; arrow); sucking mouthparts Linognathus setosus
10b Head as large as long; chewing mouthparts 11
11a Tarsus with two claws (Figure 3H; arrow) Heterodoxus spiniger
11b Tarsus with one claw 12
12a Head rounded anteriorly (Figure 3I) Trichodectes canis
12b Head triangular in shape (Figure 3J) Felicola subrostratus
13a Body length equal or less than 0.5 mm; Haller’s organ absent 14
13b Body length larger than 0.5 mm; Haller’s organ present on first tarsi (IXODIDA) 19
14a Body carrot-shaped or with a bell pepper shape (TROMBIDIFORMES) 15
14b Body not as above, usually rounded in shape (SARCOPTIFORMES) 16
15a Body long and slender (carrot-shaped) (Figure 3K) Demodex spp. a
15b Body with a bell pepper shape; well-developed mouthparts; palpi that end in prominent hooks (Figure 3L; arrow) Cheyletiella spp. b
16a Body rounded 17
16b Body cylindrical and elongate, heavily striated (Figure 3M) Lynxacarus radovskyi
17a Legs long, with short, unjointed pedicels (Figure 3N) Otodectes cynotis
17b Legs short, with long, unjointed pedicels 18
18a Anus dorsal (Figure 3O; arrow) Notoedres cati
18b Anus terminal (Figure 3P; arrow); body surface covered by several triangular spines arranged in rows Sarcoptes scabiei
19a Inornate; basis capituli hexagonal; coxa I bifid Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. c
19b Usually ornate; basis capituli variable in form Amblyomma spp. d
  1. aDemodex canis in dogs and Demodex cati in cats.
  2. bNo bona fide data on Cheyletiella spp. in dogs or cats in Brazil.
  3. cAt least two distinct biologically and genetically distinct tick populations under the name “R. sanguineus” have been found on dogs in South America [52, 161, 162].
  4. dSeveral species reported in dogs and cats. Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma ovale are among the most common Amblyomma species found on rural dogs in Brazil [55].