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Table 4 Comparison of the differences of collected ticks and positive rates of pathogens among ticks life stage, host species and terrain types

From: Tick-borne pathogens and associated co-infections in ticks collected from domestic animals in central China

Groups Sampled ticks Positive ticks χ 2 DF RR (95% CI) P
   N n %     
Life stage Larvae 2 0 0.00 0.12 1 - 0.7324
Nymphs 18 1 5.56 -
Larvae 2 0 0.00 0.20 1 - 0.6561
Adult 288 26 9.03 -
Nymphs 18 1 5.56 0.25 1 1.00 0.6144
Adult 288 26 9.03 1.62 (0.23-11.30)
Terrain feature Hilly 148 3 2.03 24.12 1 1.00 0.0000
Mountainous 107 22 20.56 10.14 (3.12-33.02)
Hilly 148 3 2.03 0.49 1 1.00 0.4836
Plain 53 2 3.77 1.86 (0.32-10.84)
Plain 53 2 3.77 7.83 1 1.00 0.0051
Mountainous 107 22 20.56 5.45 (1.33-22.31)
Hosts Dogs 144 6 4.17 2.85 1 1.00 0.0911
Sheep 130 12 9.23 2.22 (0.86-5.73)
Dogs 144 6 4.17 17.73 1 1.00 0.0000
Cattle 34 9 26.47 6.35 (2.42-16.64)
Sheep 130 12 9.23 7.17 1 1.00 0.0074
  Cattle 34 9 26.47    2.87 (1.32-6.24)  
  1. DF = degrees of freedom; RR = risk ratio; CI = confidence interval.