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Table 1 Overview of the vector control methods currently used for the prevention and control of outbreaks of WNV infection

From: A review of the vector management methods to prevent and control outbreaks of West Nile virus infection and the challenge for Europe

    Suggested use3
Activities Target environments Products and equipment Prevention Outbreak control
Targeting the mosquito larvae 1
Environmental management and source reduction artificial wetlands, hunting farms, lagoons, recreational, rice fields, irrigation canals, urban environments Ground equipment, excavators, mowers, pumps +++ Part of IVM programme
Chemical Breeding sites as specified in the insecticide label According to WHO guidelines and EU regulations: ++ Part of IVM programme
S-Methoprene, Diflubenzuron, Pyriproxyfen, Triflumuron
Biological artificial wetlands, lagoons, rice fields, irrigation canals, urban environments Gambusia (where allowed), native fish species, Macrocyclops ++ Part of IVM programme
Microbial and others wetlands, lagoons, rice fields, irrigation canals, urban environments According to WHO guidelines and EU regulations ++ Part of IVM programme
Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Spinosad
Community participation inhabited areas Insecticide formulations for domestic use + Part of IVM programme
Targeting the adult mosquitoes 2
Aerial adulticide treatments Outbreak area Aerial ULV Not allowed Not allowed (specific exemption in extraordinary cases only)
Ground adulticide treatments (ULV or LV) Outdoors, outbreak area According to WHO guidelines and EU regulations Not suggested ++
Mass trapping domestic use in inhabited areas attractive traps selective for mosquito - -
Personal protection measures any environment during mosquito activity peak in case of West Nile virus risk mosquito screen over windows, space or topical repellents, protective clothes +++ +++
  1. 1The suggested use of vector control methods targeting the mosquito larvae refers to the impact on the vector population. The impact in reducing the WNV transmission is not well known; 2The suggested use of vector control methods targeting the adult mosquitoes refers to the impact on WNV transmission; 3+++ highly useful; ++ useful; + potentially useful in some circumstances; - currently no evidence of usefulness.
  2. IVM: integrated Vector management; ULV: Ultra Low Volume.