Number of female Culicoides spp. collected from (A) cattle and (B) sheep in study A. The females are classified according to their physiological status. In study A, the activity pattern of midges was determined by making 36 collections at defined time points over a 72 h period using two drop traps located approx. 120 m apart, with either one heifer or a group of three sheep standing inside. During the collection period, sunset occurred at 21.27 and sunrise at 04.56.