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Table 2 Factors associated with malaria infection in univariate and multivariate random effect logistic regression analyses for children under five years of age in Burkina Faso (2010)

From: Multilevel and geo-statistical modeling of malaria risk in children of Burkina Faso

Covariates Univariate multilevel Multivariate multilevel
OR* (95% CrI) OR* (95% CrI)
Individual level factors   
Age (6–12 months) Reference Reference
 13-23 months 1.13 (0.91-1.40) 1.11 (0.90-1.37)
 24-35 months 1.46 (1.18-1.92) 1.41 (1.14-1.74)
 36-47 months 1.71 (1.38-2.13) 1.70 (1.37-2.10)
 48-59 months 1.92 (1.54-2.40) 1.81 (1.45-2.25)
Female Gender 1.12 (0.99-1.27) NI
Not sleeping under a bed net 1.23 (1.08-1.41) NI
Household level factors   
Mother’s Education Level§ (No schooling) Reference Reference
 Primary 0.54 (0.45-0.66) 0.73 (0.59-0.89)
 Secondary or higher 0.30 (0.22-0.40) 0.60 (0.44-0.82)
Household size (<5 persons) Reference  
 5-7 persons 1.18 (0.99-1.40) NI
 >7 persons 1.50 (1.26-1.78) NI
Household wealth index (Richest) Reference Reference
 Richer 3.05 (2.46-3.79) 1.84 (1.45-2.33)
 Middle 4.41 (3.50-5.54) 2.35 (1.82-3.05)
 Poorer 4.42 (3.49-5.59) 2.23 (1.70-2.90)
 Poorest 5.68 (4.46-7.25) 3.02 (2.29-3.99)
Community level factors   
Rate of attendance to health facilities (>2) Reference Reference
 1-2 visits per year 2.49 (1.81-3.40) 1.38 (1.05-1.82)
 <1 visits per year 6.13 (4.07-9.21) 2.49 (1.77-3.51)
Population per medical doctor (20,000-50,000) Reference  
 50,001–100,000 2.32 (1.65-3.26) NI
 >100 000 2.76 (1.94-3.91) NI
Population per heath worker (>3,000) 1.84 (1.46-2.33) NI
Climatic/Environmental factors   
Distance to river (<1 km) Reference  
 1 - 5 km 0.99 (0.52-1.87) NI
 ≥5 km 2.00 (1.10-3.62) NI
Distance to road: truncated at 16 km 1.32 (1.22-1.43) NI
 Distance to road: squared term 0.99 (0.98-0.99) NI
NDVI (<0.3) Reference Reference
 0.3 - 0.5 1.82 (1.40-2.37) 1.34 (1.07-1.68)
 ≥0.5 2.77 (2.06-3.73) 1.71 (1.29-2.26)
Average monthly rainfall (<50 mm) Reference  
50 -100 mm 0.49 (0.31-0.79) NI
 ≥100 mm 0.32 (0.19-0.56) NI
Rainfall 60 days prior to survey (<100 mm) 4.06 (2.54-6.47) 1.69 (1.14-2.53)
Altitude (<300 m) 1.82 (1.43-2.30)  
Maximum temperature (<38.5°C) Reference Reference
 38.5 - 39.5°C 0.72 (0.55-0.94) 0.89 (0.70-1.12)
 ≥39.5°C 1.09 (0.78-1.51) 0.89 (0.67-1.19)
Population density: 100/km2, truncated at 500/km2 0.89 (0.57-1.37) 1.35 (0.88-2.06)
 Population density: squared term 0.94 (0.87-1.02) 0.91 (0.84-0.99)
  1. Statistically significant results are in bold.
  2. *OR: Odds Ratio using the category between brackets as reference.
  3. CrI: Credible Interval.
  4. §210 observations were missing mother’s education information and these were removed from the models that included this variable.
  5. NI: Not Included.