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Table 3 Multivariable logistic models of STH infections using Generalized Estimating Equations to account for within-school clustering

From: School hygiene and deworming are key protective factors for reduced transmission of soil-transmitted helminths among schoolchildren in Honduras

          A. lumbricoides   T. trichiura  
  A. lumbricoides   T. trichiura   Hookworms   Mixed infections   Mod-heavy   Mod-heavy  
  (n = 307)   (n = 317)   (n = 320)   (n = 310)   (n = 96)   (n = 211)  
Variables (Risk category) OR (95% CI) p-valuea OR (95% CI) p-valuea OR (95% CI) p-valuea OR (95% CI) p-valuea OR (95% CI) p-valuea OR (95% CI) p-valuea
Ageb 0.84 (0.67-1.05) 0.120 1.14 (0.92-1.43) 0.226 1.21 (0.96-1.53) 0.107 --   --   0.85 (0.65-1.09) 0.206
Sex (Boys) 1.64 (0.90-3.00) 0.106 --   2.33 (1.23-4.42) 0.010 2.09 (1.17-3.75) 0.013 --   --  
SES (Lower)c 0.80 (0.65-0.99) 0.039 0.77 (0.63-0.94) 0.010 --   --   --   --  
Earthen floor at home (Total or partial) --   --   --   --   1.87 (0.77-4.55) 0.166 2.12 (1.05-4.29) 0.036
Home sanitary facility (None) --   --   3.23 (1.37-7.57) 0.007 --   --   2.30 (0.94-5.64) 0.068
Handwashing (Occasionally) 2.56 (0.96-6.79) 0.060 2.70 (0.93-7.81) 0.067 --   --   --   --  
Open Defecation (Habitual or occasional) --   --   --   1.78 (0.97-3.27) 0.064 --   --  
Wearing shoes outdoors (No) --   --   --   --   --   3.44 (1.73-6.87) <0.001
Recalled expelling worms (Yes) --   --   --   --   3.00 (1.19-7.55) 0.020 --  
Recalled deworming (Yes)d 0.37 (0.14-0.96) 0.042 --   --   0.55 (0.23-1.31) 0.178 --   --  
STH awareness (Lower)e --   --   0.72 (0.52-0.99) 0.040 0.75 (0.57-0.98) 0.036 --   --  
School deworming (None or only once a year) 10.40 (4.39-24.65) <0.001 2.08 (0.97-4.45) 0.067 2.92 (1.09-7.85) 0.034 10.57 (4.53-24.66) <0.001 --   8.12 (2.33-28.20) 0.001
School hygiene (Lower level) 14.85 (7.29-30.24) <0.001 7.32 (3.71-14.45) <0.001 --   9.02 (4.66-17.46) <0.001 3.32 (1.05-10.52) 0.041 --  
  1. OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval; STH: soil-transmitted helminth; SES: socio-economic status.
  2. ap-value from likelihood ratio test.
  3. bAge as continuous variable in years.
  4. cSES quintiles calculated as described in Methods. Three missing data (n = 317).
  5. dTen children did not recall receiving previous deworming treatment.
  6. eSTH Awareness score calculated as described in Methods. Range = 0 – 5.
  7. (--) Variable not included in the final model.