Plasmodium prevalence of WNV-seropositive and WNV-seronegative adult birds across host species. The numbers above bars represent sample sizes. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), and brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) were not included because of a total lack of Plasmodium or WNV infections among adult birds. Labels correspond to 4-letter abbreviated American Ornithologists’ Union alpha codes. AMRO = American robin (Turdus migratorius), HOFI = house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus), NOCA = northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), SOSP = song sparrow (Melospiza melodia), GRCA = gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), COGR = common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), HOSP = house sparrow (Passer domesticus), RWBL = red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), CHSP = chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), AMGO = American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis).