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Table 2 Knowledge about intestinal helminths, symptoms, transmission and prevention among Orang Asli in the study area

From: Developing and evaluating health education learning package (HELP) to control soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli children in Malaysia

Variable Baseline assessment   3 months assessment
  HELP n (%) Control n (%) OR (95% CI) P HELP n (%) Control n (%) OR (95% CI) P
Heard about intestinal worms 62 (69.7) 55 (72.4) 0.9 (0.4, 1.7) 0.703 80 (89.9) 59 (78.7) 1.6 (1.0, 2.7) 0.046
Source of information         
Clinic/hospitals 11 (17.5) 11 (20.1) 0.9 (0.6, 1.5) 0.755 15 (18.8) 16 (26.7) 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 0.264
Mass media 2 (3.2) 2 (3.7) 0.9 (0.3, 2.5) 0.890* 2 (2.5) 2 (2.5) 0.9 (0.3, 2.3) 0.760*
School/schoolchildren 3 (4.8) 2 (3.7) 1.2 (0.4, 3.5) 0.762* 27 (33.3) 4 (6.8) 3.9 (1.5, 8.9) < 0.001
Posters 0 0 NA - 44 (55.0) 0 (0.0) NA < 0.001
Do not remember 28 (44.4) 22 (40.0) 1.1 (0.7, 1.6) 0.626 3 (3.8) 19 (32.2) 0.4 (0.3, 0.6) < 0.001
Type of worms         
Roundworm 9 (14.3) 6 (10.9) 1.2 (0.6, 2.3) 0.583 26 (32.1) 8 (13.6) 2.0 (1.1, 3.9) 0.012
Pinworm 9 (14.5) 9 (16.4) 0.9(0.6, 1.5) 0.782 15 (18.8) 10 (16.9) 1.1 (0.6, 1.8) 0.785
Hookworm 0 0 NA - 25 (30.9) 0 (0.0) NA < 0.001
Whipworm 0 (0.0) 1 (1.8) NA 0.470 7 (8.6) 2 (3.4) 1.9 (0.6, 5.6) 0.211
Signs and symptoms         
Know at least one symptom 26 (41.9) 25 (45.5) 0.9 (0.6, 1.4) 0.702 60 (75.0) 33 (55.9) 1.6 (1.1, 2.3) 0.018
Abdominal pain 6 (9.5) 10 (18.2) 0.7 (0.5, 1.1) 0.171 30 (37.5) 16 (27.1) 1.3 (0.8, 2.1) 0.199
Abdominal distention 4 (6.5) 5 (9.1) 0.8 (0.4, 1.5) 0.733* 16 (20.0) 5 (8.5) 1.9 (0.9, 4.2) 0.061
Diarrhoea 9 (14.5) 9 (16.4) 0.9 (0.6 (1.5) 0.782 29 (35.8) 13 (22.0) 1.5 (0.9, 2.5) 0.079
Vomiting 3 (4.8) 3 (5.5) 0.9 (0.4, 2.1) 0.881* 8 (10.0) 3 (5.1) 1.6 (0.6, 4.2) 0.289
Loss of appetite 2 (3.2) 4 (7.3) 0.7 (0.4, 1.3) 0.481* 13 (16.2) 5 (8.5) 1.6 (0.7, 3.4) 0.177
Pale face 2 (3.2) 1 (1.8) 1.4 (0.3, 3.7) 0.831* 9 (11.1) 3 (5.1) 1.7 (0.6, 4.7) 0.208
Body weakness 6 (9.5) 6 (10.9) 0.9 (0.5, 1.7) 0.804 15 (18.8) 7 (11.9) 1.4 (0.7, 2.7) 0.272
Preanal itching 7 (11.1) 8 (14.8) 0.8 (0.5, 1.4) 0.550 12 (15.0) 12 (20.3) 0.8 (0.5, 1.3) 0.410
Blood in stool 2 (3.2) 1 (1.8) 1.4 (0.3, 7.1) 0.762* 3 (3.8) 1 (1.7) 1.7 (0.3, 9.4) 0.637*
Poor school performance 0 0 NA - 20 (25.0) 1 (1.7) 10.3 (1.5, 51.7) < 0.001
Transmission         
Know at least one way of transmission 24 (38.7) 20 (36.4) 1.1 (0.7, 1.6) 0.794 39 (48.8) 24 (40.0) 1.2 (0.8, 1.8) 0.303
Eating contaminated food 7 (11.3) 7 (12.7) 0.9 (0.5, 1.6) 0.811 16 (19.8) 7 (11.9) 1.5 (0.8, 2.8) 0.214
Dirty hands 11 (17.7) 3 (5.5) 2.3 (0.8, 6.5) 0.041 28 (33.8) 5 (8.5) 3.2 (1.4, 7.3) < 0.001
Walking barefooted 8 (12.9) 3 (5.5) 1.8 (0.7, 4.8) 0.168 38 (46.9) 3 (5.1) 7.7 (2.6, 23.5) < 0.001
Drinking untreated water 6 (9.7) 2 (3.6) 1.9 (0.6, 5.6) 0.196* 25 (30.9) 4 (6.7) 3.6 (1.4, 9.1) < 0.001
Playing with soil 2 (3.2) 5 (9.1) 0.6 (0.4, 1.1) 0.251* 18 (22.5) 8 (13.3) 1.5 (0.8, 2.7) 0.168
Not cutting nails regularly 5 (7.9) 2 (3.6) 1.6 (0.5, 4.5) 0.447* 28 (34.6) 5 (8.5) 3.3 (1.5, 7.6) < 0.001
Flies 0 0 NA - 18 (22.5) 0 (0.0) NA < 0.001
Prevention         
Know at least one way for prevention 24 (38.7) 28 (50.9) 0.8 (0.5, 1.1) 0.185 52 (64.2) 27 (45.8) 1.5 (1.0, 2.3) 0.030
Taking de-worming drugs 10 (16.1) 17 (30.9) 0.7 (0.5, 0.9) 0.058 24 (30.0) 21 (35.6) 0.9 (0.6, 1.3) 0.486
Washing hands before eating 10 (16.1) 9 (16.4) 1.0 (0.6, 1.7) 0.973 45 (55.6) 13 (22.0) 2.5 (1.5, 4.1) < 0.001
Wearing shoes when outside 5 (8.1) 2 (3.6) 1.7 (0.5, 5.5) 0.445* 31 (38.8) 6 (10.0) 3.2 (1.5, 6.9) < 0.001
Boiling drinking water 4 (6.5) 4 (7.4) 0.9 (0.4, 1.9) 0.840* 19 (23.8) 9 (15.0) 1.4 (0.8, 2.5) 0.286
Washing vegetables before consumption 0 0 NA - 25 (30.9) 0 (0.0) NA < 0.001
Cutting fingernails regularly 2 (3.2) 1 (1.8) 1.5 (0.4, 3.9) 0.762* 18 (22.5) 3 (5.1) 2.3 (1.4, 4.3) 0.004
  1. OR, Odds ratio. CI, Confidence interval. NA, Not applicable due to small numbers.
  2. *Fisher’s Exact test.
  3. Significant association (P < 0.05).