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Table 3 Attitude and perceived practices towards intestinal helminths among Orang Asli in the study area

From: Developing and evaluating health education learning package (HELP) to control soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli children in Malaysia

Variable Baseline assessment   3 months assessment
  HELP n (%) Control n (%) OR (95% CI) P HELP n (%) Control n (%) OR (95% CI) P
Effects of intestinal helminths         
Harmful to peoples’ health 36 (40.4% 26 (34.2) 1.2 (0.8, 1.9) 0.348 76 (85.4) 32 (42.1) 2.6 (1.9, 3.6) < 0.001
Do not know 53 (59.6) 50 (65.8) - - 13 (14.6) 44 (57.9) - -
Faeces as source of infections         
Yes 24 (27.0) 28 (36.8) 0.7 (0.3, 1.7) 0.276 45 (50.6) 34 (44.7) 1.2 (0.7, 2.3) 0.620
No 1 (1.1) 2 (2.6) - - 1 (1.1) 2 (2.6) - -
Do not know 64 (71.9) 46 (60.5) - - 43 (48.3) 40 (52.6) - -
Practices         
Washing hand before eating 34 (38.2) 33 (43.4) 0.8 (0.4, 1.5) 0.469 80 (89.9) 38 (50.0) 3.5 (1.9, 6.4) < 0.001
Washing hand after defecation 49 (55.1) 41 (53.9) 1.0 (0.6, 1.9) 0.887 73 (82.0) 43 (56.6) 3.5 (1.7, 7.1) < 0.001
Washing hand with soap 16 (18.0) 18 (23.7) 0.7 (0.3, 1.5) 0.366 60 (67.4) 18 (23.7) 6.5 (3.2, 13.1) < 0.001
Wearing shoes when outside 50 (56.2) 37 (48.7) 1.4 (0.7, 2.8) 0.336 81 (91.0) 41 (53.9) 8.6 (3.6, 20.3) < 0.001
Cutting fingernails regularly 36 (40.4) 35 (46.1) 0.7 (0.5, 1.1) 0.469 68 (76.4) 46 (60.5) 2.1 (1.1, 4.1) 0.028
Washing vegetables before eating 33 (37.1) 31 (41.3) 0.8 (0.4, 1.6) 0.578 64 (71.9) 35 (46.7) 2.9 (1.5, 5.6) 0.001
Washing of fruits before eating 29 (32.6) 30 (39.5) 0.7 (0.4, 1.4) 0.357 53 (59.6) 34 (44.7) 1.8 (0.9, 3.3) 0.057
Boiling drinking water 21 (23.9) 17 (22.7) 1.0 (0.4, 2.6) 0.857 32 (36.4) 17 (22.7) 1.9 (0.9,3.9) 0.062
Indiscriminate defecation 58 (65.2) 51 (67.1) 0.9 (0.7, 1.4) 0.793 41 (46.1) 47 (61.8) 0.7 (0.5, 0.9) 0.043
Seeking treatment from clinic 88 (98.9) 71 (94.7) 1.2 (0.6, 2.7) 0.180 88 (100) 70 (93.3) 1.0 (0.5, 2.8) 0.094
  1. OR, Odds ratio. CI, Confidence interval. NA, Not applicable due to small numbers.
  2. Significant association (P < 0.05).