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Table 4 Knowledge about intestinal helminths, symptoms, transmission and prevention among teachers in both schools involved in the study

From: Developing and evaluating health education learning package (HELP) to control soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli children in Malaysia

Variable Baseline assessment    3 months assessment
  HELP n (%) Control n (%) OR (95% CI) P HELP n (%) Control n (%) OR (95% CI) P
Heard about intestinal worms 25 (86.2) 13 (86.7) 0.9 (0.2, 5.9) 0.966* 29 (100) 14 (93.3)   0.341*
Source of information         
Clinic/hospitals 4 (16.0) 2 (15.4) 0.9 (0.2, 6.0) 0.961* 5 (17.2) 3 (21.4) 0.8 (0.3, 2.3) 0.741*
Internet 3 (12.0) 2 (15.4) 0.8 (0.3, 2.7) 0.770* 3 (10.3) 3 (21.4) 0.6 (0.2, 1.5) 0.373*
Mass media 4 (16.0) 2 (15.4) 1.2 (0.4, 4.3) 0.961* 3 (10.3) 2 (14.3) 0.8 (0.3, 2.5) 0.706*
School 0 0 NA - 23 (79.3) 4 (28.6) 2.6 (1.0, 7.1) < 0.001
Type of worms         
Roundworm 8 (32.0) 5 (38.5) 0.8 (0.3, 2.0) 0.690 27 (93.1) 5 (35.7) 5.2 (2.2, 12.2) < 0.001
Pinworm 6 (24.0) 4 (30.8) 0.8 (0.3, 2.1) 0.709* 9 (31.0) 7 (50.0) 0.6 (0.3, 1.4) 0.228
Hookworm 9 (36.0) 6 (46.2) 0.7 (0.3, 1.8) 0.544 23 (79.3) 6 (42.9) 2.7 (1.2, 6.4) 0.035*
Whipworm 0 0 NA - 11 (37.9) 0 (0.0) NA 0.008*
Signs and symptoms         
Know at least one symptom 20 (80.0) 9 (69.2) 1.4 (0.6, 3.5) 0.459 28 (96.6) 9 (64.3) 3.4 (1.8, 6.7) 0.010*
Abdominal pain 14 (56.0) 7 (53.8) 1.1 (0.4, 2.5) 0.899 29 (100) 7 (50.0) NA < 0.001
Diarrhoea 10 (40.0) 7 (53.8) 0.7 (0.3, 1.7) 0.415 18 (62.1) 8 (57.1) 1.1 (0.5, 2.7) 0.757
Vomiting 6 (24.0) 3 (23.1) 1.0 (0.4, 2.9) 0.949* 6 (20.7) 4 (28.6) 0.8 (0.3, 1.9) 0.704
Loss of appetite 6 (24.0) 5 (38.5) 0.7 (0.3, 1.6) 0.457 6 (20.7) 4 (28.6) 0.8 (0.3, 1.9) 0.704*
Body weakness 7 (28.0) 2 (15.4) 1.7 (0.5, 6.3) 0.456* 7 (24.1) 4 (28.6) 0.9 (0.4, 2.2) 0.755
Blood in stool 4 (16.0) 2 (15.4) 1.0 (0.3, 3.5) 0.961* 1 (3.4) 1 (7.1) 0.6 (0.2, 2.7) 0.590*
Poor school performance 0 0 NA - 12 (41.4) 1 (7.1) 5.6 (1.0, 38.7) 0.033*
Transmission         
Know at least one way of transmission 16 (64.0) 10 (76.9) 0.7 (0.2, 1.9) 0.486 29 (100) 11 (78.6) NA 0.029*
Eating contaminated food 10 (40.0) 5 (38.5) 1.0 (0.4, 2.6) 0.927 17 (58.6) 8 (57.1) 1.0 (0.4, 2.5) 0.927
Dirty hands 13 (52.0) 8 (61.5) 0.8 (0.3, 1.9) 0.575 20 (69.0) 9 (64.3) 1.2 (0.5, 2.8) 0.795
Walking barefooted 7 (28.0) 4 (30.8) 0.9 (0.4, 2.4) 0.859 17 (58.6) 5 (35.7) 1.9 (0.8, 4.7) 0.159
Drinking untreated water 8 (32.0) 4 (30.8) 1.0 (0.4, 2.7) 0.938 5 (17.2) 5 (35.7) 0.5 (0.2, 1.3) 0.252
Playing with soil 2 (8.0) 1 (7.7) 1.0 (0.2, 4.5) 0.973* 20 (69.0) 4 (28.6) 3.1 (1.2, 8.5) 0.012
Not cutting nails regularly 5 (20.0) 4 (30.8) 0.7 (0.3, 1.7) 0.689* 10 (34.5) 6 (42.9) 0.8 (0.3, 1.8) 0.594
Flies 0 0 NA - 11 (37.9) 1 (7.1) 5.0 (1.0, 34.3) 0.035*
Prevention         
Know at least one way for prevention 20 (80.0) 8 (61.5) 1.7 (0.7,4.1) 0.263* 29 (100) 10 (71.4) NA 0.008*
Taking de-worming drugs 11 (44.0) 8 (61.5) 0.6 (0.2, 1.6) 0.305 17 (58.6) 7 (50.0) 1.3 (0.5, 2.9) 0.594
Washing hands before eating 8 (32.0) 5 (38.5) 0.8 (0.3, 2.0) 0.730* 29 (100) 9 (64.3) NA 0.002*
Wearing shoes when outside 7 (28.0) 4 (30.8) 0.9 (0.4, 2.4) 0.858* 15 (51.7) 6 (42.9) 1.3 (0.5, 3.0) 0.586
Boiling drinking water 3 (12.0) 4 (30.8) 0.5 (0.2, 1.2) 0.203* 6 (20.7) 4 (28.6) 0.8 (0.3, 1.9) 0.704*
Washing vegetables before consumption 5 (20.0) 6 (46.2) 0.4 (0.2, 1.1) 0.135* 9 (31.0) 5 (35.7) 0.9 (0.4, 2.1) 0.759*
  1. OR, Odds ratio. CI, Confidence interval. NA, Not applicable due to small numbers.
  2. *Fisher’s Exact test.
  3. Significant association (P < 0.05).