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Table 5 Parameter estimates of bivariate and Bayesian spatio-temporal logistic models for hookworm infection risk in Brazil

From: Spatio-temporal distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Brazil

Hookworm infection Bivariate logistic Spatio-temporal model
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% BCI)
Survey period   
 1995-1999 1.00 1.00
 2000-2004 0.58 (0.50; 0.68)* 0.54 (0.43; 0.68)*
 2005-2009 0.44 (0.36; 0.54)* 0.28 (0.22; 0.35)*
 From 2010 onwards 0.29 (0.22; 0.39)* 0.13 (0.10; 0.17)*
Mean temperature of warmest quarter 2.00 (1.68; 2.37)* 1.50 (1.10; 2.05)*
Temperature seasonality 0.54 (0.43; 0.67)* 1.48 (1.21; 1.81)*
Yearly temperature range (°C)   
 <13 1.00 1.00
 13-18 0.61 (0.44; 0.86)* 0.98 (0.69; 1.37)
 ≥18 0.20 (0.15; 0.27)* 0.94 (0.60; 1.48)
Precipitation in coldest quarter 1.62 (1.43; 1.85)* 0.89 (0.69; 1.15)
Precipitation in warmest quarter 0.44 (0.35; 0.55)* 0.43 (0.33; 0.55)*
Precipitation seasonality 1.29 (1.15; 1.45)* 0.61 (0.49; 0.77)*
Precipitation in driest quarter 0.88 (0.76; 1.01) 0.74 (0.62; 0.87)*
Precipitation in wettest quarter 1.54 (1.31; 1.80)* 3.59 (2.79; 4.62)*
Altitude 0.56 (0.48; 0.67)* 0.99 (0.71; 1.37)
Soil moisture (%)   
 <50 1.00 1.00
 50-80 0.89 (0.64; 1.23) 0.52 (0.40; 0.67)*
 ≥80 0.49 (0.31; 0.78)* 0.30 (0.20; 0.43)*
Soil pH 0.87 (0.76; 1.00) 0.77 (0.70; 0.86)*
Human development index (HDI) 0.58 (0.53; 0.63)* 0.74 (0.68; 0.82)*
   Median (95% BCI)
Temporal autocorrelation   0.01 (-0.07; 0.06)
Spatial variance   8.92 (8.42; 9.43)
Spatial range (km)   29.7 (28.0; 31.4)
  1. With standard error clustered at location level.
  2. *Significant based on 95% CI or BCI.
  3. OR: odds ratio; 95% CI: lower and upper bound of a 95% confidence interval; 95% BCI: lower and upper bound of a 95% Bayesian credible interval.