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Table 1 Ethno-geographical foci of Taenia asiatica transmission

From: Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review

Country Region People Food habits References
Taiwan Mountainous areas of northern and eastern Taiwan Bunun, Atayal Habit of eating viscera, especially liver and blood, of fresh-killed animals, including wild boar, but excluding cattle Fan 1988 [1]; Chung et al. 1990 [39]; Fan et al. 1990 [49]; Fan et al. 1992a [40]; Ooi et al. 2013 [2]
Taiwan Orchid island, Lanyu Township, Taitung County, southeastern Taiwan Tao (originally known as Yami) Habit of eating viscera, especially liver and blood, of fresh-killed animals, including wild boar, but excluding cattle Fan et al. 1992b [50]; Eom et al. 2009 [51]; Ooi et al. 2013 [2]
Indonesia Ambarita village, Samosir Island, northern Sumatra Batak (Christian) “Sang-sang”: traditional dish with minced pork, viscera and blood; during preparation, uncooked meat and viscera are sometimes eaten Fan et al. 1989 [7]; Fan et al. 1992c [52]; Suroso et al. 2006 [53]; Wandra et al. 2006 [54]
South Korea Jeju Island (Jeju-do) and mainland South Korea Not minority people as seen in other countries Habit of eating liver and other viscera of pigs at “Churyum”, a common rural practice of slaughtering pigs at home during weddings, funerals and other special occasions Fan et al. 1992b [50]; Eom et al. 1992 [11]; Eom & Rim 2001 [55]; Galan-Puchades & Fuentes 2001 [56]
China Luzhai County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, southern China Zhuang Habit of eating raw pork and pig liver, unseasoned or mixed with sour sauce and salted garlic; consumption of raw beef is uncommon Eom et al. 2002 [57]; Eom et al. 2009 [51]
China Yajiang (Nyagqu) County, Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province Kham Tibetans Habit of eating raw pork and beef Li et al. 2006 [58]; Li et al. 2013 [59]
Thailand Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province, west-central Thailand, Thai-Myanmar border Karen Habit of eating raw or under cooked beef, pork, or pig viscera and fresh blood Anantaphruti et al. 2007 [60]; Anantaphruti et al. 2010 [61]; Anantaphruti 2013 [62]
Japan Kanto region, central Honshu Not minority people as seen in other countries Serving of pig liver “sashimi” (raw slices) at “yakitori” or “yakiniku” restaurants Eom et al. 2009 [51]; Michelet & Dauga 2012 [63]; Yamasaki 2013 [64]
Nepal Morang & Sunsari district, southeastern Nepal Dum Frequent pork consumption; habit of eating undercooked meat and viscera of home raised Hurra piglets during certain religious and social festivities Devleesschauwer et al. 2012 [65]