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Table 1 Statistically significant associations between parasitic infections and clinically assessed or self-reported morbidity from multivariate regression analysis

From: The epidemiology of polyparasitism and implications for morbidity in two rural communities of Côte d’Ivoire

Morbidity§ Association Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Clinically assessed morbidity    
Anaemia2+,7i,8i,9i,10i,12i,14 P. falciparum parasitaemia (>5,000 parasites/μl of blood) 3.54 (1.63, 7.66) 0.001
  E. histolytica/E. dispar intensity (++) 4.43 (1.79, 10.97) 0.001
  S. mansoni intensity (+) 0.29 (0.10, 0.86) 0.025
  Hookworm intensity (+) 0.60 (0.37, 0.99) 0.045
Splenomegaly3+,6+,7i,9i,10i,14 P. falciparum parasitaemia (>5,000 parasites/μl of blood) 6.26 (2.60, 15.03) <0.001
  P. falciparum parasitaemia (501-5,000 parasites/μl of blood) 3.71 (1.80, 7.64) <0.001
  P. malariae 2.28 (1.01, 5.18) 0.048
Malnutrition (z-score <-2)9+,13,14,15 S. mansoni intensity (+) 0.32 (0.11, 0.93) 0.036
  S. haematobium 0.55 (0.31, 0.98) 0.041
Pallor7i,11i,14 S. mansoni 0.40 (0.23, 0.70) 0.001
  E. histolytica/E. dispar 0.52 (0.29, 0.93) 0.026
Fever (≥38.0 °C)3+,6+,14 P. falciparum parasitaemia (>5,000 parasites/μl of blood) 4.19 (1.35, 13.03) 0.013
Self-reported morbidity    
Diarrhoea6i,9+,11i,12i,14,16 S. mansoni intensity (++) 3.33 (1.35, 8.23) 0.009
Abdominal pain9i,14,15 S. mansoni 2.54 (1.66, 3.89) <0.001
  G. intestinalis intensity (++) 2.14 (1.17, 3.93) 0.013
Blood in the stool7+,9+,10i,12i,13,14 S. haematobium 2.20 (1.34, 3.62) 0.002
  S. mansoni 2.13 (1.27, 3.57) 0.004
  P. falciparum 0.58 (0.38, 0.89) 0.013
Blood in urine7i,8i,9i,11i,12i,13,14 S. haematobium intensity (+) 2.77 (1.61, 4.77) <0.001
  S. haematobium intensity (+++) 11.08 (4.75, 25.83) <0.001
  S. mansoni 0.29 (0.12, 0.72) 0.008
Chronic morbidity6i,7i,8i,9i,11i,12i,14,15 No. of concurrent pathogenic infections (≥3 parasites) 0.43 (0.21, 0.88) 0.022
  S. haematobium 2.25 (1.35, 3.75) 0.002
  S. mansoni 0.38 (0.19, 0.74) 0.004
  1. Reference categories: parasite infection status or intensity: no infection. Helminth infection intensities: (+) = light, (++) = moderate, (+++) = heavy.
  2. §Covariates further included in each model for adjustment (+ = infection with, i = intensity of infection): 1 = P. falciparum, 2 = P. malariae, 3 = S. haematobium, 4 = S. mansoni, 5 = Hookworm, 6 = E. histolytica/E. dispar, 7 = E. coli, 8 = E. nana, 9 = I. bütschlii, 10 = G. intestinalis, 11 = C. mesnili, 12 = B. hominis, 13 = sex, 14 = age group, 15 = socioeconomic status, 16 = number of concurrent pathogenic infections (0, 1, 2, and 3 or more).