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Table 2 Associations between specific morbidities and co-infection/co-morbidities in children/adolescents aged <18 years and adults ≥18 years from multivariate regression analysis

From: The epidemiology of polyparasitism and implications for morbidity in two rural communities of Côte d’Ivoire

Morbidity§ N Co-infection/co-morbidity category Adjusted OR (95% CI) p-value
Children/adolescents aged <18 years (n = 466)   
Anaemia3i,4i,6i,14,16 188 No hookworm/no P. falciparum 500 + Δ 1.00 (reference)  
  170 P. falciparum500+ only 1.90 (1.15, 3.14) 0.012*
  66 Hookworm only 0.29 (0.09, 0.88) 0.030*
  42 Co-infected 0.84 (0.34, 2.05) 0.699
Anaemia3i,4i,5+,6i,14 181 Not malnourished/no P. falciparum500+ 1.00 (reference)  
  141 P. falciparum500+ only 1.94 (1.05, 3.57) 0.034*
  73 Malnourished only 2.21 (1.11, 4.41) 0.024*
  71 Malnourished/P. falciparum500+ 4.62 (2.32, 9.21) <0.001*
Splenomegaly2+,6i,13,14 191 No S. haematobium/no P. falciparum500+ 1.00 (reference)  
  174 P. falciparum500+ only 3.10 (1.80, 5.31) <0.001*
  63 S. haematobium only 2.47 (1.11, 5.49) 0.026*
  38 Co-infected 3.48 (1.49, 8.15) 0.004*
Splenomegaly2+,3+,6i,13,14 181 Not malnourished/no P. falciparum500+ 1.00 (reference)  
  141 P. falciparum500+ only 1.91 (1.08, 3.40) 0.027*
  73 Malnourished only 0.70 (0.32, 1.53) 0.374
  71 Malnourished/P. falciparum500+ 3.26 (1.66, 6.40) 0.001*
Adults aged ≥18 years (n = 384)   
Anaemia6i,8+,13 186 No S. mansoni/no P. falciparum 1.00 (reference)  
  121 P. falciparum only 1.03 (0.52, 2.03) 0.940
  34 S. mansoni only 0.47 (0.10, 2.15) 0.332
  43 Co-infected 0.13 (0.02, 0.99) 0.049*
Pallor8i,12i,13,15 186 No S. mansoni/no P. falciparum 1.00 (reference)  
  121 P. falciparum only 0.81 (0.47, 1.41) 0.458
  34 S. mansoni only 0.74 (0.28, 2.01) 0.560
  43 Co-infected 0.23 (0.07, 0.71) 0.011*
Chronic morbidity5+,9i,11i,13,14,15 186 No S. mansoni/no P. falciparum 1.00 (reference)  
  121 P. falciparum only 0.61 (0.37, 1.01) 0.052
  34 S. mansoni only 0.53 (0.22, 1.31) 0.168
  43 Co-infected 0.16 (0.06, 0.46) 0.001*
Abdominal pain14,15 186 No S. mansoni/no P. falciparum 1.00 (reference)  
  121 P. falciparum only 0.63 (0.36, 1.10) 0.105
  34 S. mansoni only 1.74 (0.80, 3.78) 0.163
  43 Co-infected 2.79 (1.38, 5.64) 0.004*
Abdominal pain14,15 206 No S. mansoni/no hookworm 1.00 (reference)  
  34 S. mansoni only 2.15 (0.99, 4.64) 0.051
  101 Hookworm only 1.02 (0.59, 1.78) 0.946
  43 Co-infected 3.27 (1.61, 6.63) 0.001*
  1. *Statistically significant with a p-value <0.05.
  2. ΔP. falciparum parasitaemia of >500 parasites/μl of blood.
  3. §Not significant covariates further included in each model for adjustment (+ = infection with, i = intensity of infection): 1 = P. falciparum, 2 = P. malariae, 3 = S. haematobium, 4 = S. mansoni, 5 = hookworm, 6 = E. histolytica/E. dispar, 7 = E. coli, 8 = E. nana, 9 = I. bütschlii, 10 = G. intestinalis, 11 = C. mesnili, 12 = B. hominis, 13 = sex, 14 = age group, 15 = socioeconomic status, 16 = malnutrition (moderate or severe).