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Table 1 Socio demographic characteristics of participants in case–control study in the visceral leshmaniasis endemic foci of the Adebay and Hagereselam, North -West Ethiopia

From: Risk factors of visceral leishmaniasis: a case control study in north-western Ethiopia

Characteristics Cases no. (%) Control no. (%) Total P value
Gender     0.810
Male 77(85.6%) 163(84.5%) 240(84.8%)  
Female 13(14.4%) 30(15.5%) 43(15.2%)  
Age in years     0.975
<5 3(3.3%) 6(3.1%) 9(3.2%)  
5-14 24(26.7%) 49(25.4%) 73(25.8%)  
15-39 56(62.2%) 120(62.2%) 176(62.2%)  
> = 40 7(7.8%) 18(9.3%) 25(8.8%)  
Relation to household head     0.973
Head 22(24.4%) 55(28.5%) 77(27.2%)  
Spouse 5(5.6%) 13(6.7%) 18(6.4%  
Female child 7(7.8%) 15(7.8%) 22(7.8%)  
Male child 45(50.0%) 88(45.6%) 133(47.0%)  
Distantly related 6(6.7%) 13(6.7%) 19(6.7%)  
Others (dependent, servant) 5(5.6%) 9(4.7%) 14(4.9%)  
Current marital status     0.334
Single 61(67.8%) 129(67.2%) 190(67.4%)  
Married 28(31.1%) 63(32.8%) 91(32.3%)  
Divorced 1(1.1%) 0(.0%) 1(.4%)  
Family size     0.025
1-2 9(10.0%) 36(18.7%) 45(15.9%)  
3-5 29(32.2%) 76(39.4%) 105(37.1%)  
6-8 39(43.3%) 69(35.8%) 108(38.2%)  
> = 9 13(14.4%) 12(6.2%) 25(8.8%)  
Ethnic group     0.026
Tigre 83(92.2%) 188(97.4%) 271(95.8%)  
Amhara 4(4.4%) 5(2.6%) 9(3.2%)  
Others 3(3.3%) 0(.0%) 3(1.1%)  
Major occupation currently do earn money     0.045
Employed 0(0%) 1(.5%) 1(.4%)  
Business man/women 3(3.4%) 6(3.1%) 9(3.2%)  
Farmer 25(28.1%) 56(29.3%) 81(28.9%)  
Housewife 8(9.0%) 13(6.8%) 21(7.5%)  
Daily labourer 15(16.9%) 29(15.2%) 44(15.7%)  
Student 27(30.3%) 73(38.2%) 100(35.7%)  
Have no Job 1(1.1%) 9(4.7%) 10(3.6%)  
Others (keeping Animal) 10(11.2%) 4(2.1%) 14(5.0%)  
Able to read and write in any language (Yes) 60(66.7%) 144(74.6%) 204(72.1%) 0.165
School grade completed     0.001
Grade <5 60(66.7%) 89(46.1%) 149(52.7%)  
Grade > =5 30(33.3%) 104(53.9%) 134(47.3%)  
Permanent residence     0.676
Rural 17(18.9%) 30(15.5%) 47(16.6%)  
Semi-urban 72(80.0%) 157(81.3%) 229(80.9%)  
Urban 1(1.1%) 5(2.6%) 6(2.1%)  
Study area (villages)     0.888
Adebay 69(76.7%) 152(78.8%) 222(78.1%)  
Hagereselam/Endris 10(11.1%) 18(9.3%) 28(9.9%)  
Migrant workers 11(12.2%) 23(11.9%) 34(12.0%)  
Own farm land (Yes) 66(73.3%0 140(72.5%) 206(72.8%) 0.889
Months sleep in the farm field     0.000
June-November 55(77.5%) 104(95.4%) 159(88.3%)  
December-May 0(.0%) 5(4.6%) 5(2.8%)  
Throughout the year 16(22.5%) 0(.0%) 16(8.9%)