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Table 4 Factors associated with transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in univariate analysis

From: Risk factors of visceral leishmaniasis: a case control study in north-western Ethiopia

Variables Cases Control OR 95.0% CI   P value
  [n/N (%)] [n/N (%)]   Lower Upper
Socio-demographic       
Family size (mean, 95% Cl)** 5.8(5.3-6.4) 4.8(4.4-5.1) 1.257 1.110 1.423 0.000
Own farm land 66(73.3%) 140(72.5%) 1.038 0.555 1.943 0.907
Able to read and write 60(66.7%) 144(74.6%) 0.598 0.319 1.121 0.109
School grade <5 60(66.7%) 89(46.1%) 3.432 1.760 6.693 0.000
Housing condition       
Separate kitchen 43(47.8%) 122(63.2%) 0.534 0.320 0.892 0.016
Animal barn inside compound 45(50.0%) 79(40.9%) 0.622 0.350 1.106 0.106
Damp house floor 24(26.7%) 15(7.8%) 4.328 2.097 8.932 0.000
Sleeping on bed 74(82.2%) 183(94.8%) 0.287 0.128 0.642 0.002
Thatched roof 56(62.2%) 113(59.5%) 0.899 0.523 1.546 0.701
Cracked house wall 60 (66.7%) 84 (44.4%) 2.768 1.549 4.946 0.001
Cracked black soil near house 64(71.1%) 60(31.1%) 6.266 3.308 11.871 0.000
Animal ownership       
Presence of cattle (mean, 95% Cl for mean)** 5.9(3.4-8.3) 1.8(1.3-2.3) 1.114 1.047 1.185 0.001
Dog ownership 47(52.2%) 48(24.9%) 3.544 1.970 6.376 0.000
Goats ownership 37(41.1%) 43(22.3%) 2.500 1.407 4.443 0.002
Number of goats per household (Mean,95% Cl for mean)** 4.01(2.4-5.6) 2.1(1.3-3) 1.041 1.002 1.083 0.039
Sheep ownership 38(42.2%) 72(37.3%) 1.183 0.710 1.971 0.519
Number of sheep per household (Mean,95% Cl for mean)** 3.9(2.1-5.6) 3.4(2.4-4.5) 1.006 0.975 1.038 0.704
Donkey ownership 59(65.6%) 98(50.8%) 1.971 1.117 3.477 0.019
Dumping animal dung near house 38(42.2%) 30(15.5%) 4.170 2.215 7.849 0.000
Apply insecticide to livestock 21(23.3%) 64(33.2%) 0.603 0.339 1.072 0.085
Individual activities       
Sleeping outside the house near animal shelter 43(47.8%) 46(23.8%) 3.062 1.725 5.437 0.000
Sleeping under Balanites-acacia trees at night 64(71.1%) 96(49.7%) 2.613 1.453 4.702 0.001
Sleeping outside the house under bed net 16(17.8%) 118(61.1%) 0.130 0.066 0.258 0.000
House sprayed with insecticides 16(17.8%) 49(25.5%) 0.577 0.290 1.148 0.117
Smoking house 50(56.2%) 168(87.0%) 0.093 0.038 0.225 0.000
Period of days stayed in the farm field       
Mean ( 95% Cl for mean)** 91.3(61.7-120.9) 8(5.9-10) 1.035 1.009 1.062 0.008
Sleeping in the farm field over night 66(76.7%) 109(56.5%) 4.159 1.745 9.913 0.001
  1. Odd ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (Cl), and P values derived from univariate conditional logistic regression models. **refers to calculated means.