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Table 2 Generalized linear model testing the effects of sampling year (1993–2012), ecological zone (zones 1 and 2) and their interaction on bioassay mortality for (a) DDT, (b) permethrin, (c) deltamethrin, (d) carbamates (bendiocarb & propoxur), (e) organophosphates (fenitrothion & malathion)

From: Long-term trends in Anopheles gambiae insecticide resistance in Côte d’Ivoire

(a) DDT Wald χ2 d.f. P-value
Intercept 337.471 1 0.000
Year (covariate) 337.866 1 0.000
Ecological zone 68.178 1 0.000
Year × ecological zone 68.062 1 0.000
(b) deltamethrin Wald χ 2 d.f. P-value
Intercept 56.854 1 0.000
Year (covariate) 55.615 1 0.000
Ecological zone 4.833 1 0.028
Year × ecological zone 4.926 1 0.026
(c) permethrin Wald χ 2 d.f. P-value
Intercept 6.848 1 0.009
Year (covariate) 7.001 1 0.008
Insecticide concentration 63.232 1 0.000
Ecological zone 33.974 1 0.000
Year × ecological zone 33.889 1 0.000
(d) carbamate Wald χ 2 d.f. P-value
Intercept 1.205 1 0.272
Year (covariate) 1.193 1 0.275
Insecticide type 5.922 1 0.015
Ecological zone 72.697 1 0.000
Year × ecological zone 72.311 1 0.000
(e) organophosphate Wald χ 2 d.f. P-value
Intercept 1.517 1 0.218
Year (covariate) 1.693 1 0.193
Ecological zone 59.664 1 0.000
Year × ecological zone 59.063 1 0.000
  1. In (b) and (c) two (similar) insecticide concentrations were present in the data so this term was also included as an effect in each model but not in interactions owing to insufficient variance.